Disasters and Disaster Management – Sendai Framework, Floods, Cyclones, etc.

[op-ed snap] In fact: Many floods, different, yet similarop-ed snap


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Mains Paper 3: Disaster Management | Disaster and disaster management.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: Important article for Mains paper 3.


News

Context

  1. The article talks about the flood situations in various part of the country

Flood in Bengaluru

  1. Recently, four atmospheric systems dumped an unusual amount of rain within the span of 24 hours on Bengaluru
  2. And because stormwater drains could not cope with the downpour, the city got heavily flooded

A Case Study of Bangalore’ (Journal of the National Institute of Disaster Management, April 2009)

  1. According to the Journal, the reason behind the heavy flood was
    (1) lack of drainage upgrade works
    (2) the encroachment and filling in the floodplain on the waterways
    (3) obstruction by the sewer pipes and manholes and relevant structures
    (4) deposits of building materials and solid wastes with subsequent blockage of the system
    (5) also flow restrictions from under-capacity road crossings (bridge and culverts)

Report on Srinagar Floods

  1. After the Srinagar floods of 2014, a report by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) noted that in the past 100 years, more than 50% of Srinagar’s lakes, ponds and wetlands have been encroached
  2. How: Due to construction of building and roads

Encroachment issues in Mumbai

  1.  Mumbai authorities had virtually forgotten the city’s Mithi river until the catastrophic flooding of July 26, 2005
  2. What was once a flowing river had been blocked at every corner
  3. There were encroachments and constructions on the riverbed and at the point where the river would discharge into the sea

Is it all about Human Intervention?

  1. Bengaluru, Chennai, Mumbai, Srinagar, Delhi, Gurgaon, etc. are all examples of human intervention that have rendered a city unfit to deal with a deluge
  2. But floods are also a natural occurrence
  3. In Assam and north Bihar, for example, they happen almost every year
  4. There is, however, a human hand in such floods as well
  5. With increasing deforestation in the Eastern Himalayas, the run-off has increased, and carries along more sediment

The way forward

  1. Unless natural sponges are revived and restored, India’s cities will remain vulnerable to manmade flooding
  2. Especially as climate change makes rainfall patterns increasingly more erratic(unpredictable)
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