From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : LoC
Mains level : Suspending trade across Loc might not prove to be a good idea.
India last week suspended the cross-LoC trade, alleging misuse of the facility by individuals linked to terrorist groups.
1. Origin of trade – These measures seems to have originated in a four-point proposal for Kashmir that began to get regular airing from about 2005 from then military ruler General Pervez Musharraf. The four points were:
- The LoC will stay but Kashmiris on both sides will be allowed to move freely back and forth;
- Self-governance or autonomy to the region, but not independence;
- Gradual demilitarisation on both sides;
- A joint supervision mechanism with India, Pakistan and Kashmir represented on it.
- In India, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh spoke about “soft borders” and “making borders irrelevant” in Kashmir.
- On July 7 that year, the Indian Embassy in Kabul was bombed, killing an Indian diplomat and a senior Army officer and several Afghans. The US and India said the ISI was behind the bombing.
- But the India-Pakistan foreign secretaries’ talks were held as scheduled later that month on July 21 under the composite dialogue format, and they agreed to the opening of trade routes across the LoC.
The two sides then rushed to finalise the details in the following weeks, including at a meeting of the “working group of cross LoC CBMs” on September 22, 2008.
Hiccups and demands
- The agreement was for zero duty trade for a list of 21 items.
- It ran into problems almost immediately as traders on both sides floundered on currency and communication issues.
1. Establishment of Intra Jammu & Kashmir Chamber of Commerce & Industry (IJ&KCCI) – A chamber of commerce, called the Intra Jammu & Kashmir Chamber of Commerce & Industry (IJ&KCCI), came into existence.
Banking Relations – They pointed to the need for banking relations and mutual acceptance of letters of credit, a communication network, a regulatory network to determine the composition of trade, and a legal network for dispute resolution.
Expansion of list, travel arrangements – The joint chamber recommended expansion of the list of items for trade, facilitation of travel and traders’ access to each other, infrastructure facilities, banking services, use of dual currency of both countries as the mode of payment with the US dollar as the reference point, inclusion of the services sector, and opening of more trade routes.
Complaints – There were complaints that the trade had expanded to include non-Kashmiri goods. The complaints were particularly loud from the traders at Wagah border who catered to the same markets and were envious of the zero-duty cross LoC trade.
- Once in 2015, trade was suspended for 40 days after drugs were discovered in a truck from Muzaffarabad.
- The longest suspension came during the post-Burhan Wani killing agitation in the Valley, for three months.
- There were other brief spells when trade was suspended, mostly at Chakan da Bagh, on account of heavy cross-border shelling.
- However, Kashmiris point out that trade has never been suspended for under-invoicing or other such violations at any other port in the country where Customs and other enforcement officials strictly monitor the inflows and outflows, and the same could have been done at the LoC.
- As for the involvement of former militants in the trade, this was seen as a welcome development towards creating “constituencies of peace” and building stakes for normalcy in the Valley.
Benefits of trade
- In 2011, a four page report called Intra Kashmir Trade, jointly prepared by the Delhi-based IPCS, Conciliation Resources of London, and the Islamabad-based Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency, said cross border trade had proved it could be insulated from the ups and downs in the India-Pakistan relationship, and had begun to establish a “bottom up” approach to peace-building.
- Trade has attracted divided families and some former combatants and provided a non-violent and alternative vision for change and conflict transformation,” the report said.
- It spoke about 40 former militants who had chosen to participate in the economic activity.
- More than its value in currency terms, the cross Loc trade holds much symbolic value in Jammu & Kashmir, especially in the Poonch-Rawalakot sector, where there are more divided families and villages than at the Uri crossing point.
- They would be hoping that the current suspension is not permanent.