Primary and Secondary Education – RTE, Education Policy, SEQI, RMSA, Committee Reports, etc.

[op-ed snap] Marginalised from school


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Section 12(1) (c)

Mains level: The article is written by a senior opposition leader. He is talking(with proper facts) regarding bad governance in implementing the Section 12(1) (c) of the RTE Act. The section contains some very important provisions of the act.

Implementation of the Right to Education Act (RTE):  Section 12(1)(c) of the RTE Act

  1. five States (Goa, Manipur, Mizoram, Sikkim and Telangana) have not even issued notifications regarding admissions under the RTE
  2. Section 12(1)(c) of the Act mandates private unaided schools to reserve 25% of seats for children from economically weaker sections (EWS), in the age bracket of six to 14 years
  3. This enabled economically marginalised communities to access high quality private schools, at the expense of the State
  4. While Telangana may be excused due to its recent formation,
  5. it is unjustifiable that the other States have failed to undertake the most basic steps to implement Section 12(1)(c) of an Act passed eight years ago

Majority of states have not notified the per-child costs: A provision under the RTE Act

  1. States have to notify per-child costs to pay the private schools, on behalf of the children admitted under this provision
  2. However, out of 29 States and seven Union Territories, only 14 have notified their per-child costs
  3. The provision does not apply to Jammu and Kashmir and there are no private schools in Lakshadweep;
  4. therefore, as per the data provided, a shocking 20 States/UTs have still not notified the per-child costs, a blatant violation of the letter and spirit of the RTE

Issues with reimbursing the claims of state governments

  1. It is also shocking to note that in 2017-18, of the 15 States which submitted their reimbursement claims to the Central government, only six were approved
  2. Many of the claims of the States were not provided funds by the Centre, as they had not notified the per-child costs
    Possible reason
  3. The absence of a streamlined disbursement framework both at the Central and State levels is one of the biggest reasons that reimbursements are not processed
  4. If the States are not provided sufficient funds, private schools would be forced to bear the costs of the children

Very less number of seats are being filled under Section 12(1)(c) of the act

  1. The data regarding the number of children admitted under Section 12(1)(c) of the Act are also distressing
  2. The number of children studying under this provision increased by 6,12,053 from 2014-2015 to 2015-16, but by 5,02,880 from 2015-16 to 2016-17
  3. The State of the Nation 2015 report by IIM Ahmedabad puts the total number of seats under this provision as 1.6 crore over the next eight years
  4. This means that 20 lakh seats should be available annually for EWS children in private schools under the Act;
  5. However, only 5-6 lakh seats are being filled on an annual basis

The way forward

  1. The executive is responsible for the implementation of RTE and the legislature has the duty to hold the executive accountable
  2. Neither – judging by the evidence – has done its job properly
  3. The RTE aimed to provide a framework for private schools to supplement the efforts of the state to uplift disadvantaged sections of society through the means of education
  4. We need to act immediately to address the gaps in the implementation of the law
  5. The future of our children depends on it


Admission of students under Section 12(1)(c) of RTE Act, 2009

  1. According to Section 12 (1)(c) of the Act, all specified category or private schools must reserve 25% of their seats for children belonging to EWS from the neighbourhood and provide them admission from Class I onwards;
  2. wherever such a school provides pre-school education, these rules are to be applied to the pre-school section as well
  3. To maintain the spirit of inclusiveness, proper implementation and monitoring of this section is significant. At present, the consolidated data on number of children enrolled under this section is not available
  4. Hence, there is a need for an online system to monitor the (a) admissions under this section, (b) entitlements given (c) children under the section leaving school
Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments