Minority Issues – SC, ST, Dalits, OBC, Reservations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Most marginalised of them all


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Socio economic status of Muslims in India


The 2019 Lok Sabha elections show the political marginalisation of Muslims. There is also the socio-economic marginalisation of the community. Muslims have been losing out to Dalits and Hindu OBCs since the Sachar committee submitted its report in 2005.

Socioeconomic status of Muslims

    • Reports – this is based on the NSSO report (PLFS-2018) and the NSS-EUS (2011-12). 
    • Educational attainment – The proportion of the youth who have completed graduation among Muslims in 2017-18 is 14% as against 18% among the Dalits, 25% among the Hindu OBCs, and 37% among the Hindu upper castes. 
    • Gap in education
      • The gap between the SCs and Muslims is 4% in 2017-18. Six years earlier (2011-12), the SC youth were just 1% above Muslims in educational attainment. 
      • The gap between the Muslims and Hindu OBCs was 7% in 2011-12 and has gone up to 11% now. 
      • The gap between all Hindus and Muslims widened from 9% in 2011-12 to 11% in 2017-18.
    • Muslims in Hindi heartlandMuslim youth in the Hindi heartland fare the worst. Their educational attainment is the lowest in Haryana, 3% in 2017-18; in Rajasthan, this figure is 7%; it is 11% in Uttar Pradesh. 
    • In all these states, except MP, SCs fare better than Muslims. 
    • Eastern India the educational attainment among the Muslim youth in Bihar is 8%, as against 7% among SCs, in West Bengal it is 8%, as against 9% for SCs, and in Assam, it is 7%as against 8% for SCs. 
    • Western India the educational attainment figures for Muslims are better compared to 2011-12. In Gujarat, the gap in educational attainment between the Muslims and SCs is14%. In Maharashtra, the Muslims were 2% better off than SCs in 2011-12, they have now not only lost to SCs but the latter has now overtaken them by 8%. 
    • SouthWith 36% of graduate Muslim youth, Tamil Nadu tops the educational attainment parameter. In Kerala, this figure is 28%, in Andhra Pradesh, it is 21% and in Karnataka, 18% of the Muslim youth are graduates. While the community is giving a close competition to SCs in Tamil Nadu and AP, it is losing out in Kerala. 
    • Reasons for better outcomes in South – The developments in South India have more to do with the relatively faster mobility of SCs than the marginalisation of Muslims. Muslims enjoy positive discrimination in these states – Dalit and OBC Muslims are given reservations under the OBC quota.
    • In educational institutions  – Only 39% of the community in the age group of 15-24 are in educational institutions as against 44% for SCs, 51 % for Hindu OBCs and 59% for Hindu upper castes.


    • The marginalisation of Muslims began several years ago, the phenomenon seems to have gathered pace in recent years. 
    • Sam Asher et al point out in their recent study, ‘Intergenerational Mobility in India: Estimates from New Methods and Administrative Data’, that Muslims are being left out from educational mobility in India while the SCs are getting integrated into it.


More studies are needed to link this process to the political marginalisation of Muslims.

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