Mains Paper 2: IR | India and its neighborhood- relations.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Not much
Mains level: The newscard briefly talks about the current issues between India and China
Unique meeting between the Special Representatives of India and China on the boundary question(held recently)
- The talks came more than 20 months after the last round, reflecting a period of extreme strain in India-China ties
- Meeting was held between India’s NSA and Chinese State Councillor
- The two sides were best poised to move ahead in the three-step process that was part of the Agreement on ‘Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the India-China Boundary Question’ in 2005
- That is, defining the guidelines for the settlement of border disputes, formulating a framework agreement on the implementation of the guidelines, and completing border demarcation
Guided by Modi-Xi vision
- Both the representatives were guided by the Modi-Xi agreements of 2017, including the ‘Astana consensus’ that “differences must not be allowed to become disputes”
- And the understanding at Xiamen that India-China relations “are a factor of stability” in an increasingly unstable world
Are Sino-Indian relations improving?
- It would be a mistake, however, to infer that with all these engagements the worst in bilateral ties is now behind the two countries
- Since 2013, when the Border Defence Cooperation Agreement was signed, there has been a steady decline in relations in all spheres
- The border has seen more transgressions, people-to-people ties have suffered amid mutual suspicion
- And China’s forays in South Asia as well as India’s forays into South-East Asian sea lanes have increasingly become areas of contestation
How India sees the contentious situations?
- In India, this is seen as the outcome of China’s ambition of geopolitical domination
How China sees the contentious situations?
- China sees the U.S.-India defence agreements, the Quadrilateral engagement with Japan, Australia and the U.S., and Indian opposition to the BRI quite the same way(geopolitical domination)