Internal Security Trends and Incidents

[op-ed snap] Reforms money can,t buy


Mains Paper 3: Internal Security | Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

Prelims: Cabinet Committee on Security, Central sector schemes and centrally sponsored schemes, Finance Commission

Mains level: The article  recommends that the government’s umbrella scheme modernization of police force must be followed by steps to grant the force autonomy from political masters.


The Centre recently approved Rs 25000 Cr modernisation of police force scheme which will be implemented between 2017 and 2020.

Modernisation of police forces

  1. It will strengthen the law and order apparatus, modernise state police forces and enhance their capacity to combat terrorism.
  2. It also has special provisions for women’s security, mobility of police forces, logistical support, hiring of helicopters, upgradation of police wireless, satellite communications, crime and criminal tracking network and systems (CCTNS) and e-prisons.
  3. The idea is to assist the states to upgrade their police infrastructure, especially in respect of transport, communications and forensic support, to enable them to effectively tackle the emerging challenges.

Funding Pattern of the scheme

  1. Out of the total outlay, the Centre will about 75 per cent while the states’ share will be the rest. Under the scheme, J&K, north-eastern states and states affected by Left-Wing Extremism will get a boost of Rs 10,132 crore.
  2. 14th Finance Commission’s recommendations increased the state’s share of central taxes from 32 per cent to 42 per cent, following which Centre de-linked eight centrally sponsored schemes (CSS) from its support in 2015.
  3. While central funding of modernisation of police was stopped, non-plan funding for the same would continued.
  4. Thereafter, majority of state governments were disinclined to make any investments in police.
  5. But, the Centre again started its funding in internal security with modernisation of police forces scheme on the recommendation of Cabinet Committee on Security.

Smart Police

  • The PM in 2014 enunciated the concept of SMART police. The smartness has two dimensions external and internal.
  • External Dimension refers to the uniform a policeman wears, the way he carries himself, his weapons, the communication equipment on his person, his mobility, response time, et al. The scheme would enhance his capabilities to respond to and deal with the kind of challenges he is confronted with in his day to day work.
  • Internal Dimension refers to the expanded acronym of SMART that is, the police should be strict and sensitive, modern and mobile, alert and accountable, reliable and responsible, tech-savvy and trained. This is far more important than the external dimension but the scheme hardly improves this aspect .

Problems with the police force

  1. Today we have Ruler’s police but what we need is People’s police.
  2. Accountability has to be to the Constitution, the laws of the land and the people of the country.
  3. The police is being accused of being insensitive to poor and tribals.

Way Forward

  1. Reliability would increase only when the police are objective, fair and impartial. Gadgetry won’t help here.
  2. It is the state of mind which matters. And to achieve that state of mind, police must be freed from the stranglehold of politicians.
  3. The scheme must be followed by structural reforms, institutions like the state security commission, police establishment board and complaints authority must be set up in every state in keeping with the directions of the Court.
  4. The GOI should bring police and public order in the Concurrent List of Schedule VII of the Constitution. Constitutional experts like Fali S. Nariman have strongly spoken in favour of such an amendment.
  5. Sustained economic progress needs the solid foundation of good law and order, and we cannot have good law and order in the country unless the police are reorganised, restructured and rejuvenated.


Cabinet Committee on Security

  1. The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) of the Central Government of India decides on India’s defence expenditure, matters of National Security, and makes significant appointments.
  2. CCS is chaired by the Prime Minister of India and comprises the Minister of Defence, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Home Affairs, and the Minister of External Affairs.

Central Sector Scheme
It is entirely (100%) funded by the Union Government and implemented by central agencies.
These schemes are mainly related to the subjects in the Union list. Example- Golden Quadrilateral

Centrally Sponsored Schemes
A certain percentage of the funding is borne by the States in the ratio of 50:50, 70:30, 75:25 or 90:10 and the implementation is by the State Governments. These schemes are mainly related to the subjects in the State List. Example-MGNREGA



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