Air Pollution

[op-ed snap] Stubble resistance


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Stubble Burning - way ahead


Last week, Delhi recorded its worst reading in three years on the Air Quality Index. The Supreme Court pulled up governments of Punjab, Haryana, and Delhi for their lack of concerted action against stubble burning. 

Supreme court

  • It questioned the chief secretaries of Punjab and Haryana for not being sensitive enough to the issue. 
  • It has asked the governments of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to pay, within seven days, Rs 100 per quintal of paddy as an incentive to farmers who have not burnt stubble on their fields. 
  • The directive meets a longstanding demand of farmers’ organisations.

Questions it rises

  • Do the states have the financial resources to bear the burden of the cash incentive? 
  • Are such incentives enough to wean farmers away from stubble burning?

Response to judgement

  • Punjab agreed to the judgement. More than 90% of the non-Basmati paddy crop has been harvested. 
  • Punjab CM has given indications of the state’s limitations in providing cash incentives in the future. 
  • States demand that the Centre will have to help the states, which are facing serious fiscal constraints. 
  • GST regime has stifled financial resources of all states. 


  • The Supreme court said that it will take a final call on the “aspect of finance” after considering the detailed report to be submitted by the state governments. 
  • It will have to chart a plan that takes into account the interests of the farmers as well as recognises the constraints of the states.

State actions

  • The Punjab and Haryana governments subsidise the Happy Seeder sowing machines, which obviate straw burning. 
  • Still, the technology has not got the necessary traction because farmers do not want to invest in a machine that lies idle for most of the year.
  •  As in the case of most farm technologies in the country, the adoption of Happy Seeders will require changing mindsets. 
  • To persuade farmers to not set their fields on fires, state governments will need to reach out to them with educational programmes — not just financial incentives.
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