From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Corruption Perception Index
Mains level : Corruption - data and analysis
The crisis in the Amazon is a stark example of the damage that can be done when governments bow to business interests. It also highlights the manipulation of anti-corruption efforts to undermine democracy and advance an authoritarian political agenda.
The US is 22nd on the 180-country list; among major developing and emerging economies, India is 78th, China is 87th, Brazil is 105th, and Nigeria is 144th.
Debate on corruption
- Some conservative economists argue that corruption can be beneficial as it enables economic actors to bypass regulations, thereby enabling markets to function more effectively.
- But corruption corrodes markets, protects incumbents from competitive challenges by impeding the entry of new actors, destroys the moral fabric of society, and stunts economic development.
- As Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) shows, there is a strong inverse correlation between development and corruption.
- According to the latest CPI data, the world’s least corrupt countries are Denmark and New Zealand. Both have achieved high standards of living.
- The world’s most corrupt countries are Somalia, South Sudan, and Syria—all poor and mired in conflict.
- Data suggests that the common belief that corruption is hardwired in some societies is not always correct. Corruption levels can and do change.
- A couple of centuries ago, corruption was rampant in countries like the United Kingdom, which today ranks 11th on the CPI.
- Prior to self-government in 1959, Singapore was beset by corruption. This year, it reached third place.
- There is a connection between corruption management and democratic compromise. This is why many leaders who come to power to control corruption end up nurturing cronyism and damaging democracy instead.
- Some political leaders launch a corruption “purge” that targets rivals or critics for prosecution. It is easy in countries rife with high-level corruption
- In countries where it is endemic, corruption can implicate even those who would prefer to operate according to the law. Corruption can proliferate easily, especially in a context where it is already an embedded part of everyday life.
- The index is released by Transparency International
- The index ranks the countries by their perceived levels of public sector corruption according to experts and businesspeople
- It uses a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is very clear