Electric and Hybrid Cars – FAME, National Electric Mobility Mission, etc.

[op-ed snap] Time for auto industry to go all electricop-ed snap


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Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From the UPSC perspective following things are important:

Prelims Level: Particulars of the EV technology

Mains Level: The article is important for both Mains paper 2 and paper 3.


News

Context

  1. The article talks about Electric Vehicles(EVs) and how government is planning to achieve its targets related to EVs.

India is going after clean and renewable energy sources

  1. The government has been working to effect a radical shift in India’s energy production and consumption patterns to reduce dependence on fossil fuels
  2. According to last year’s National Electricity Plan (NEP3) forecast, India will achieve(ahead of schedule), the target of renewable energy being 40% of total power production by 2030
  3. The target was declared at the Paris Climate Change Conference in 2015

NITI Aayog’s report on mobility transformation 

  1. The government intends that all vehicles sold in India by 2030 should be electric
  2. A recently released NITI Aayog report on mobility transformation outlines a feasible and phased approach to achieve this goal
  3. It presents the government’s vision of a shared, electric and connected mobility paradigm where mobility is a service based on an electric vehicle (EV) fleet, enabled by the convergence of
    (1) low-cost technologies,
    (2) smart designs,
    (3) business model innovation and supportive policies

The government is leading by example

  1. The Central government is calling global tenders for the first 10,000 electric cars, of which a pilot phase of 500 cars has already been awarded to Tata Motors Ltd and Mahindra & Mahindra
  2. Among the states, the Karnataka government has taken the lead in formulating India’s first comprehensive EV policy
  3. The policy will support a complete ecosystem from manufacturing to deployment of charging stations

Why EVs are not popular in India?

  1. Due to range anxiety, high capital cost and long charging time, despite the obvious benefits of very low running costs and zero emission

Government’s plan for Public Transport

  1. Coming to public transport, despite a sharp increase in private vehicle ownership over the last decade, India still relies heavily on public transport
  2. The government plans to make public transport more economical and environment-friendly by promoting electric buses
  3. However, the current generation of electric buses with traditional battery technology are prohibitively expensive at four to five times the cost of a diesel bus

How to counter challenges related to EVs?
One way is “Battery swapping” 

  1. To help bring down the capital cost of electric buses, experts are recommending two things among the various solutions being looked at
    (1) reducing the battery size and
    (2) adopting “swappable” battery technology,
  2. It will help in bringing down the upfront capital cost while reducing the operational cost and charging time
  3. The Indian auto industry is actively working in this direction as it helps state public transport agencies to induct electric bus fleets without incurring too much additional expenditure

Benefits of connected vehicles

  1. The government’s agenda also focuses on developing an ecosystem to support the EV industry
  2. It will enable various stakeholders to stay connected, enabling a high-functioning ,EV-driven public transport system
  3. For example, an electric bus heading for the last stop can signal EV taxis in the area about how many passengers it will be offloading
  4. This ensures optimum onward journey options for the disembarking passengers
  5. Or EVs can communicate with refuelling stations about battery requirements, so there is never a danger of getting stranded
  6. These connected vehicles are also a necessary step towards the inevitable progression to autonomous vehicles

The Way Forward

  1. The auto industry has been growing at a steady pace and India is now becoming an export hub for small and medium-sized cars
  2. This leaves the auto industry well-placed to go all out on electric
  3. This is an opportune time for the auto industry to embrace the government’s EV push and collaborate with technology and mobility solution providers to capitalize on this opportunity
  4. It will hugely benefit the nation, economically and environmentally

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