Primary and Secondary Education – RTE, Education Policy, SEQI, RMSA, Committee Reports, etc.

[op-ed snap] Upgrading the public education system


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Comments of the report on Private Schools and solutions given to improve education system


  1. The article talks about World Development Report, 2018 on education system in private and public schools

Lack of trust in government schools 

  1. Education systems in many countries are not performing up to expectation
  2. And many families have been turning to private schools since they feel that the latter deliver better education, especially when public schooling itself is not fully free
  3. India too fails to provide free secondary public education

World Development Report, 2018 comment on public and private schools

  1. The World Bank’s recent flagship World Development Report, 2018 addressed some immediate challenges of quality education
  2. The report highlights that research across 40 countries finds no difference in the learning outcomes of children with similar family backgrounds in both public and private schools
  3. Private schools appear better since they enrol children from relatively advantaged backgrounds who are able to pay, not because they deliver better quality
  4. The World Bank report thus challenges a popular perception in India and finds no consistent evidence that private schools deliver better learning outcomes than public schools

Lack of untrained teachers in private schools

  1. Indeed, of the 1.27 million untrained teachers teaching in India, 925,000 are in private schools, pointing to the massive historic neglect of quality

Other particulars of the World Bank’s Report

  1. The report warned that some private schools’ quest for profit “can lead them to advocate policy choices that are not in the interests of students”
  2. In some instances, private schools may indeed deliver comparable learning outcomes with lower input costs, but this is achieved largely through lower teacher salaries
  3. The report reiterated that while this may make education cheaper, it does not make it better
  4. And has the additional disadvantage of reducing the supply of qualified teachers over time

How can we improve the quality of education?

  1. The quality of education can only be improved if
    (1) steps are taken to ensure children come to school prepared to learn,
    (2) teachers have the skills and motivation to teach effectively,
    (3) inputs reach classrooms and management
    (4) and governance systems are strengthened in schools that serve the poorest

Risks associated with private schools

  1. There are also clear risks as private schools skim off higher-income students that are easiest and most profitable to teach, leaving the most disadvantaged within the public system
  2. The reliance on private schools risks segregating the education system on family income and deepening existing social cleavages;
  3. It also undermines the political constituency for effective public schooling in the long run
  4. This has particularly dangerous outcomes in India where caste, gender and class inequalities dominate

Regulatory framework for private schools in India

  1. India has taken some steps in the direction of developing regulatory frameworks for private schools, with several states enacting fee-regulation legislation and the courts intervening to challenge private sector failures
  2. Recently, the Supreme Court intervened to direct states to enforce guidelines on safety in schools, it had to enforce fee regulation

The way forward

  1. The government is set to unveil the first New Education Policy in 25 years in December 2017
  2. It needs to address the key concerns and should focus on equity in quality—ensuring universal access to free, quality, equitable and safe public education for all of India’s young citizens
  3. This alone would help achieve India’s aspirations of global leadership by tapping into the demographic dividend that India still enjoys
  4. This must be backed by adequate resources. India is committed to the global and domestic benchmark of allotting 6% of gross domestic product to education, but has never crossed the 4% threshold
  5. Failing to invest in the best education for the poor will only widen the social inequalities that exist in India today
  6. The road to reform is fraught with challenges but the cost of inaction will be much higher
Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments