Forest Conservation Efforts – NFP, Western Ghats, etc.

[oped snap] The bamboo curtain


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Difference between tree and grass.

Mains level: Complement it with our previous newscards on the same issue(attached below).


Bamboo: Grass or Tree

  1. Bamboo may belong to the plant kingdom, but even if we choose to call it a tree, it is not a tree
  2. It belongs to the family Poaceae, which means it is a kind of grass
  3. There are complicated botanical differences between grass and a tree
  4. But one is simple to understand. A tree’s stem is solid, while a bamboo’s is hollow

The Indian Forest Act (IFA) of 1927 has been amended

  1. Initially it was done through an ordinance( Read [op-ed snap] Bamboo shoots and Bamboo ceases to be a tree, freed of Forest Act )
  2. It was decided to amend clause (7) of section 2 of the said Act so as to omit the word ‘bamboos’ from the definition of tree
  3. Why: In order to exempt bamboos grown on non-forest area from the requirement of permit(from one state to the another) for felling or transit under the said Act
  4. And would encourage bamboo plantation by farmers resulting in the enhancement of their income from agricultural fields

Does the amended law demolish the bamboo curtain?

  1. According to some experts, it doesn’t
  2. The first tension is this bamboo anywhere versus bamboo in forest/non-forest areas. (Almost all, if not all, bamboo in the Northeast will be in forest areas.)
  3. Second, while IFA doesn’t define “forest”, notwithstanding the Forest Rights Act (FRA) of 2006, are we clear about what is “forest”, or will it be left to the courts (such as in the Godavarman case) to determine what is a forest?
  4. Third, where is “forest” in the Seventh Schedule? Today, forests feature as Entry 17A in the Concurrent List.
  5. But this is after the 42nd Amendment, famous for other reasons
  6. Before that, “forests” featured in the State List
  7. We, therefore, have a Union government cum state government angle, with several states (Assam, Odisha, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka) enacting legislation/rules on the cutting or transit of bamboo.
  8. Fourth, under FRA, is there clarity between the rights of the forest department vis-à-vis community rights?
  9. Think of a piece of bamboo in transit
  10. In the absence of chips embedded into it, how does one establish it originated in a non-forest area?

The way forward

  1. Legislation on forests in India have a colonial and complicated legacy, the antecedents go back to 1865, not 1927
  2. Bamboo has suffered in the process, “in the skirts of the forest like fringe upon a petticoat”
  3. There is still a lot of cleaning up to do
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