From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Not Much
Mains level : Transgenders and their upliftment measures
The Parliament has passed the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha approving it by a voice vote. The Lok Sabha had already passed the bill in December 2018.
Various provisions of the Bill
- The Bill defines a transgender person as one whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth.
- It includes trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, such as kinnar and hijra.
Prohibition against discrimination
- It prohibits the discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to education, employment, healthcare, access to, or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public.
- Every transgender person shall have a right to reside and be included in his household.
- No government or private entity can discriminate against a transgender person in employment matters, including recruitment, and promotion.
- A transgender person may make an application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as ‘transgender’.
- Educational institutions funded or recognised by the relevant government shall provide inclusive facilities for transgender persons, without discrimination.
- The government must provide health facilities to transgender persons including separate HIV surveillance centres, and sex reassignment surgeries.
- The National Council for Transgender persons (NCT) chaired by Union Minister for Social Justice, will advise the central government as well as monitor the impact of policies with respect to transgender persons.
- It will also redress the grievances of transgender persons.
The Bill imposes penalties for the offences against transgender persons like bonded labour, denial of use of public places, removal from household & village and physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic abuse.