Mains Paper 3 : Issues relating growth and development, employment |
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : CWS and Usual Method
Mains level : Unemployment in India
- The govt has finally released Annual Report of the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2017-18 and the Quarterly Bulletin PLFS.
Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)
- The PLFS was launched from 1st April 2017.
- Primary aim of the PLFS is to generate reasonably accurate indicators of labour market at a short span for every quarter for which speed of quality data collection and processing are important.
- PLFS was launched with the objective of measuring employment every three months in urban areas and once a year in both rural and urban areas.
- The quarterly survey only captures data classed as current weekly status (CWS), while the annual survey measures both the usual status and CWS.
- The NSSO was historically conducting Employment and Unemployment Surveys as part of its National Sample Surveys.
Who are the Unemployed?
- Labour force means people working or looking for jobs in the age group of 15-29 years.
- CWS Method: A person who is unable to get work for even an hour in the last seven days despite seeking employment is considered unemployed.
- Usual Status Method: Under this, the employment activity of a person is determined on the basis of a reference period of 365 days preceding the date of the survey.
- Labour force participation has been declining and touched 36.9% in 2017-18 as more among them, especially females, enrolled for higher studies.
- The youth accounted for 28.2% of urban males and 27.8% of urban females.
- During 2017-18, among people aged 15-29 years, the share of the educated was 65.8% among urban males. It was 65.4% among urban females.
- A higher percentage of males compared to females had received either formal or non-formal vocational training.
Reality of jobless growth
- The rising unemployment rate despite falling labour force participation for the youth is more worrying.
- This is likely to raise questions about whether India is suffering from jobless growth.
- According to Census 2011, India has 333 million youth—a number that is likely to touch 367 million in 2021 and 370 million by 2031.
- With this huge rise in youth unemployment, it is hard to reconcile this information with the EPFO data that people keep talking about, because a majority of the new entrants to EPFO would be the younger people.