From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Dialysis
Mains level : National Dialysis Programme
- The Health Ministry has released guidelines for establishing peritoneal dialysis services under the Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PMNDP).
What is Dialysis?
- Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine.
- It is the process of removing excess water, solutes, and toxins from the blood in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions naturally.
National Dialysis Programme
- The PM National Dialysis Programme was rolled out in 2016 as part of the National Health Mission(NHM) for provision of free dialysis services to the poor.
- The first phase of the programme envisaged setting up of haemodialysis centres in all districts.
- The Guidelines for National Dialysis Programme envisage provision of dialysis services under NHM in PPP (Public Private Partnership) mode.
- It covers 2 main types of dialysis:
Hemodialysis (HD, commonly known as blood dialysis)
- In HD, the blood is filtered through a machine that acts like an artificial kidney and is returned back into the body. HD needs to be performed in a designated dialysis centre.
- It is usually needed about 3 times per week, with each episode taking about 3-4 hours.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD, commonly known as water dialysis)
- In PD, the blood is cleaned without being removed from the body.
- The abdomen sac (lining) acts as a natural filter. A solution (mainly made up of salts and sugars) is injected into the abdomen that encourages filtration such that the waste is transferred from the blood to the solution.
Why such move?
- The move is aimed at achieving equity in patient access to home-based peritoneal dialysis; reducing the overall cost of care; and bringing in consistency of practice, pricing and a full range of product availability.
- The guidelines aim to serve as a comprehensive manual to States that intend to set up peritoneal dialysis.
- This move will instantly benefit the 2 lakh Indians who develop end-stage kidney failure every year in India.