Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: GCF
Mains level: India fulfilling its ambitious climate actions
- The COP-24 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be held at Katowice, Poland from 2nd December 2018 to 14th December 2018.
- COP-24 is very significant as it is expected to finalise guidelines for implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted in 2016.
Indian agenda at the COP
- India strongly supports the objective of the Paris Agreement to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change.
- India is committed towards keeping the global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
- India considers it important from the point of view of eradicating poverty and caring for the poor and the marginalized.
- The issue of pre-2020 commitments under Kyoto Protocol of developed countries to fulfill their climate finance commitments of mobilizing USD 100 billion per annum by 2020, will remain a priority for India in COP-24.
Paris Agreement Work Programme (PAWP)
- During the COP-24, India would like to emphasise its concern for climate change and reaffirm its commitments to finalization of the PAWP.
- India strives to ensure that Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC), in the light of different national circumstances, are operationalised in all elements of the PAWP.
Greater responsibility for Developed Countries
- These implementation gaps will present an additional burden to developing countries in the post-2020 period.
- Therefore, the key concern for India is to ensure that no undue burden is shifted onto developing countries in the post-2020 period.
- India is of the view that enhanced provision of new, adequate and predictable finance, technology development and transfer, as well as capacity-building support, is key enablers to achieve higher ambition in their climate actions.
- Therefore, PAWP must have mechanisms to ensure new, adequate and predictable support for developing country parties.
- The final political phase of 2018 Facilitative Talanoa Dialogue and stock take exercise on Pre-2020 implementation and action are also scheduled during COP-24.
- India will be looking forward to a rich exchange of views during the high-level Talanoa dialogue at COP-24, with consideration of pre-2020 actions and support as a crucial element.
- India will be working together with all Parties in an open, transparent, inclusive and Party-driven manner to achieve a balanced and comprehensive outcome in the form of final PAWP at COP-24.
India’s targets achieved so far
- The ambitious goal of generating 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022, and initiatives on smart cities, electric vehicles, energy efficiency initiatives etc. have now made India one of the global leaders in climate action.
- With the achievement of about 72 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2018 out of a targeted 175 GW, India stands at 4th position globally in wind power, 6th position in solar power installed capacity, and overall 5th position in renewable power.
- India made a voluntary pledge in 2009 to reduce the emission intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 20-25 per cent from 2005 levels by 2020 (excluding emissions from agriculture).
- India’s climate actions are synchronized with its development goals and simultaneously reflect its bold vision for combating climate change.
- The UN’s highest environmental honour, UNEP “Champions of the Earth” award was conferred on the PM Modi for his pioneering work in championing the ISA and for his unprecedented pledge to eliminate all single-use plastic in India by 2022.