Land Reforms

[pib] Categorization of Farmers


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Land reforms in India

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Land holding categorization in India

Mains level: Improving the condition of Small and Marginal farmers


Operational Land Holding in India                  

  • In Agriculture Census 2015-16, the operational holdings are categorised in five size classes as follows:-


S. No. Category Size-Class
Marginal Below 1.00 hectare
Small 1.00-2.00 hectare
Semi- Medium 2.00-4.00 hectare
Medium 4.00-10.00 hectare
Large 10.00 hectare and above


  • The operational holdings are also classified in three social groups, viz., Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Others.
  • The average size holdings is highest in Nagaland (5.06 ha) followed by Punjab (3.62 ha).
  • Countrywide the average size is 1.08 ha.
  • It has been observed that Small farms are more efficient, especially in cultivating labour-intensive crops or tending livestock, but land holdings are too small to generate sufficient household income.

Refer this image for State-wise average size of operational holdings in the country:

Press Information Bureau

Inline Feedbacks
View all comments