Electoral Reforms In India

[pib] ECI reaffirms Non-Tamperability of EVMs


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: EVMs and VVPATs

Mains level: Feasibility of using EVMs and VVPATs amid allegations of tampering


  • In wake of rumours about EVMs tampering and manipulating, ECI rules out all such possibilities.

How are EVMs and VVPATs non-tamperable?


  1. The ECI-EVMs are stand-alone machines designed to connect only amongst ECI-EVM units (Ballot Unit, Control Unit and VVPAT) through cables that remain in full public view.
  2. There is no mechanism in them to communicate with any device through wireless communication on any Radio Frequency.
  3. All their versions are regularly and rigorously tested against low to high wireless frequencies. These tests include and go beyond the standard tests specified for electronic equipments
  4. They are regularly tested for proper functioning under all kind of operating conditions.
  5. They are also regularly tested for code authentication and verification.


  1. In the context alleging about the two side printing of VVPAT paper which allegedly retains lower tampered print while the front side print as verified by the voter, getting erased.
  2. VVPATs use thermal printers which can print only on one side of thermal paper.
  3. The print is fully visible through the viewing window.
  4. The paper rolls used in VVPATs have only one-sided thermal coating and hence can be printed only on one side.
  5. The VVPAT paper print lasts atleast for five years.

Verified by Manufacturers

  1. Bharat Electronics Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited, are the sole manufacturers of EVMs and now also VVPATs.
  2. They also reaffirmed that all the TEC prescribed Standard Operating Procedures are scrupulously adhered to and observed.
  3. It is however reiterated that while ECI-EVMs might malfunction sometimes like any other machine due to component failures and stop working, but even such a malfunctioning ECI-EVM would not record any vote incorrectly.
  4. It is reaffirmed that ECI-EVMs are not tamperable.
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