Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: EVMs and VVPATs
Mains level: Feasibility of using EVMs and VVPATs amid allegations of tampering
- In wake of rumours about EVMs tampering and manipulating, ECI rules out all such possibilities.
How are EVMs and VVPATs non-tamperable?
- The ECI-EVMs are stand-alone machines designed to connect only amongst ECI-EVM units (Ballot Unit, Control Unit and VVPAT) through cables that remain in full public view.
- There is no mechanism in them to communicate with any device through wireless communication on any Radio Frequency.
- All their versions are regularly and rigorously tested against low to high wireless frequencies. These tests include and go beyond the standard tests specified for electronic equipments
- They are regularly tested for proper functioning under all kind of operating conditions.
- They are also regularly tested for code authentication and verification.
- In the context alleging about the two side printing of VVPAT paper which allegedly retains lower tampered print while the front side print as verified by the voter, getting erased.
- VVPATs use thermal printers which can print only on one side of thermal paper.
- The print is fully visible through the viewing window.
- The paper rolls used in VVPATs have only one-sided thermal coating and hence can be printed only on one side.
- The VVPAT paper print lasts atleast for five years.
Verified by Manufacturers
- Bharat Electronics Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited, are the sole manufacturers of EVMs and now also VVPATs.
- They also reaffirmed that all the TEC prescribed Standard Operating Procedures are scrupulously adhered to and observed.
- It is however reiterated that while ECI-EVMs might malfunction sometimes like any other machine due to component failures and stop working, but even such a malfunctioning ECI-EVM would not record any vote incorrectly.
- It is reaffirmed that ECI-EVMs are not tamperable.