From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Measures of GII
Mains level : Innovation ecosystem in India
Union Minister of Commerce & Industry and Railways has launched the Global Innovation Index (GII) in New Delhi. This is the first time that the GII is being launched in an emerging economy.
- India has jumped five notches to 52nd in the GII 2019 which ranked 129 countries.
- In 2019, India continues to stand out in the GII ranking of the world’s top science and technology clusters with Bengaluru, Mumbai and New Delhi featuring among global top-100 clusters.
- During 2015 to 2019, India exhibited the second-largest improvement in any economy.
- The period also represented the largest upward move among any of the top-five biggest economies in the world (based on 2018 GDP).
- The top-10 countries in GII 2019 ranking are Switzerland, Sweden, the United States, the Netherlands, Britain, Finland, Denmark, Singapore, Germany and Israel.
About Global Innovation Index
- The GII is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation. It was started in 2007 by INSEAD and World Business a British magazine.
- It is published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, in partnership with other organisations and institutions.
- It is based on both subjective and objective data derived from several sources, including the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank and the World Economic Forum.
- The GII is commonly used by corporate and government officials to compare countries by their level of innovation.
- The theme of the 2019 GII is Creating Healthy Lives – The Future of Medical Innovation, which aims to explore the role of medical innovation as it shapes the future of healthcare.
Components of GII
Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities under GII are:
- Human capital and research,
- Market sophistication, and
- Business sophistication.
Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs:
- Knowledge and technology outputs and
- Creative outputs