Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: ICAP and its provisions
Mains level: India’s efforts in phasing out Ozone Depleting Substances
- India is one of the first countries in the world to develop a comprehensive Cooling Action plan.
- It has a long term vision to address the cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand.
India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)
- The overarching goal of ICAP is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society.
- It provides an integrated vision towards cooling across sectors encompassing inter alia reduction of cooling demand, refrigerant transition, enhancing energy efficiency and better technology options with a 20 year time horizon.
- One of the major demand is to reduce cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25% by 2037-38 and refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by 2037-38.
Why focus on cooling?
- Cooling requirement is cross sectoral and an essential part for economic growth and is required across different sectors of the economy such as residential and commercial buildings, cold-chain, refrigeration, transport and industries
- Cooling is also linked to human health and productivity.
- Linkages of cooling with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are well acknowledged.
- Its cross-sectoral nature of cooling and its use in development of the economy makes provision for cooling an important developmental necessity.
Benefits of the Plan
- Thermal comfort for all – provision for cooling for EWS and LIG housing,
- Sustainable cooling – low GHG emissions related to cooling,
- Doubling Farmers Income – better cold chain infrastructure – better value of produce to farmers, less wastage of produce,
- Skilled workforce for better livelihoods and environmental protection,
- Make in India – domestic manufacturing of air-conditioning and related cooling equipment’s,
- Robust R&D on alternative cooling technologies – to provide push to innovation in cooling sector.