Mains Paper 2: IR | India & its neighborhood- relations
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Permanent Indus Commission, Indus Water Treaty
Mains level: Rising tensions between India and Pakistan over various issues
Indus Waters Treaty, 1960
- The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-distribution treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank signed in Karachi in 1960.
- According to this agreement, control over the water flowing in three “eastern” rivers of India — the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej was given to India
- The control over the water flowing in three “western” rivers of India — the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum was given to Pakistan
- The treaty allowed India to use western rivers water for limited irrigation use and unrestricted use for power generation, domestic, industrial and non-consumptive uses such as navigation, floating of property, fish culture, etc. while laying down precise regulations for India to build projects
- India has also been given the right to generate hydroelectricity through run of the river (RoR) projects on the Western Rivers which, subject to specific criteria for design and operation is unrestricted.
Present Status of Development
- To utilize the waters of the Eastern rivers which have been allocated to India for exclusive use, India has constructed Bhakra Dam on Satluj, Pong and Pandoh Dam on Beas and Thein (Ranjitsagar) on Ravi.
- These storage works, together with other works like Beas-Sutlej Link, Madhopur-Beas Link, Indira Gandhi Nahar Project etc has helped India utilize nearly entire share (95 %) of waters of Eastern rivers.
- However, about 2 MAF of water annually from Ravi is reported to be still flowing unutilized to Pakistan below Madhopur.
- The three projects will help India to utilize its entire share of waters given under the Indus Waters Treaty 1960:
I. Resumption of Construction of Shahpurkandi project
- It is a dam project under construction on Ravi River.
II. Construction of Ujh multipurpose project
- It is a dam project under construction on Ujh , a tributary of Ravi River.
III. 2nd Ravi Beas link below Ujh
- This project is being planned to tap excess water flowing down to Pakistan through river Ravi, even after construction of Thein Dam.
- It aims constructing a barrage across river Ravi for diverting water through a tunnel link to Beas basin.