From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Kimberley Process, Conflict Diamond
Mains level : KPCS
- The Intersessional meet of Kimberley Process (KP) will be hosted by India
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme
- The Kimberley Process is a joint initiative involving Government, international diamond industry and civil society to stem the flow of Conflict Diamonds.
- Conflict Diamonds means rough diamonds used by rebel movements or their allies to finance conflict aimed at undermining legitimate governments.
- It is also described in United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolutions.
Why need KPCS?
- In 1998, certain rebel movements in Africa (Sierra Leone, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia) were selling, among other things, illegally obtained diamonds.
- These were known as Conflict Diamonds – to fund their wars against legitimate governments.
- With a view to find ways to stop trade in Conflict Diamonds, world’s diamond industry, UN, Governments and leading NGOs came together and in November 2002 at Interlaken, Switzerland.
- There the final draft of the Kimberley Process measures was ratified by more than fifty countries.
- The KPCS came into effect from 1st January, 2003 and evolved into an effective mechanism for stopping the trade in Conflict Diamonds.
- At present, KPCS has 55 members representing 82 countries including EU with 28 members.
India and the KPCS
- India is one of the founder members of Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.
- It is the Chair of Kimberley Process for the year 2019 with Russian Federation as Vice Chair.
- India had earlier chaired KPCS in the year 2008.
Rough diamond trading under the KPCS
- As per the Scheme, each shipment of rough diamonds being exported and imported by crossing an international border be transported in a tamper proof container and accompanied by a validated Kimberley Process Certificate.
- The shipment can only be exported to a co-participant country in the KPCS.
- No uncertified shipments of rough diamonds are permitted to enter a participant country.
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