From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : MKSP
Mains level : Feminization of Agriculture in India
- As per Agriculture Census conducted at an interval of every five years by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, the percentage of female operational holdings in the country have increased from 12.78 percent during 2010-11 to 13.78 percent during 2015-16.
Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)
- In line with the provisions of National Policy for Farmers (NPF) (2007), Ministry of Rural Development is already implementing a programme exclusively for women farmers namely MKSP.
- It is a sub-component of Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM).
- The primary objective of MKSP is to empower women by enhancing their participation in agriculture and to create sustainable livelihood opportunities for them.
- Funding support to the tune of up to 60% (90% for North Eastern States) for such projects is provided by the Government of India.
Feminization of Agriculture in India
- Rural women form the most productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations including India.
- More than 80% of rural women are engaged in agriculture activities for their livelihoods.
- About 20 per cent of farm livelihoods are female headed due to widowhood, desertion, or male emigration.
- Agriculture support system in India strengthens the exclusion of women from their entitlements as agriculture workers and cultivators.
- Most of the women-headed households are not able to access extension services, farmers support institutions and production assets like seed, water, credit, subsidy etc.
- As agricultural workers, women are paid lower wage than men.
- MKSP recognizes the identity of “Mahila” as “Kisan” and strives to build the capacity of women in the domain of agro-ecologically sustainable practices.