From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : FMD
Mains level : About the initiative
- Prime Minister will be launching National Animal Disease Control Programme for Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis today.
National Animal Disease Control Programme
- The programme for Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis is a 100% centrally funded programme, with a total outlay of Rs.12,652 crore from 2019 to 2024.
- It aims to control Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.
- Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact.
- The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants.
- Intensively reared animals are more susceptible to the disease than traditional breeds.
- The disease is rarely fatal in adult animals, but there is often high mortality in young animals due to myocarditis or, when the dam is infected by the disease, lack of milk.
- FMD is characterised by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves.
- The disease causes severe production losses, and while the majority of affected animals recover, the disease often leaves them weakened and debilitated.
- FMD is found in all excretions and secretions from infected animals. Notably, these animals breathe out a large amount of aerosolised virus, which can infect other animals via the respiratory or oral routes.
- The virus may be present in milk and semen for up to 4 days before the animal shows clinical signs of disease.