Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Minutes of the Scheme
Mains level: Improving higher education system and making it more inclusive i.e. a step towards achieving “Sabko Shiksha, Achi Shiksha”
Samagra Shiksha Scheme
- The Department of School Education and Literacy (MoHRD) has formulated the Samagra Shiksha – an Integrated Scheme for School Education as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme and it is being implemented throughout the country with effect from the year 2018-19.
- This programme subsumes the three erstwhile Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
- It is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class XII and aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.
- It envisages the ‘school’ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to senior secondary levels.
- The major interventions, across all levels of school education, under the scheme, are:
- Universal Access including Infrastructure Development and Retention;
- Gender and Equity, Inclusive Education;
- Financial support for Teacher Salary;
- Digital initiatives;
- Entitlements under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 including uniforms, textbooks etc.;
- Pre-school, Vocational and Sports and Physical Education;
- Strengthening of Teacher Education and Training;
- Monitoring and Programme Management.
The main emphasis of the Scheme is on improving the quality of school education and the strategy for all interventions would be to enhance the Learning Outcomes at all levels of schooling.
Some of the major features include:
- Holistic Approach: Treat school education holistically as a continuum from Pre-school to Class 12
- Quality Education: Capacity building of teachers in the online and offline mode as well as the strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions SCERT/DIET/BRC/CRC/CTEs/IASEs.
- Digital Education: Support ‘Operation Digital Board’ in all secondary schools over a period of 5 years, which will revolutionize education- easy to understand, technology-based learning classrooms will become flipped classrooms.
- Swachhata Initiatives: Specific provision for Swachhta activities – support ‘Swachh Vidyalaya’
- Girls Education: Upgradation of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBY) from Class 6-8 to Class 6-12. And Stipend for CWSN girls to be provided from Classes I to XII. – earlier only IX to XII.
- Skill Enhancement: Vocational education which was limited to Class 9-12, to be started from class 6 as integrated with the curriculum and to be made more practical and industry oriented.
- Physical Education: Every school will receive sports equipments under the scheme to inculcate and emphasize the relevance of sports in the school curriculum
- Promoting Regional Balances: Preference to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWEs, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas and the 115 aspirational districts identified by Niti Aayog