From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : SBM
Mains level : SBM impact on water contamination
- Swachhata has affected all aspects of the environment – be it groundwater, surface water, soil or air – as well as health and well-being of the communities in ODF regions as per the report published by UNICEF.
Environmental Impact study by UNICEF
- Under the “Environmental impact of the SBM on Water, Soil, and Food” by UNICEF, groundwater samples were collected and studied from ODF and non-ODF villages of Odisha, Bihar and West Bengal.
- The study found that, in terms of faecal contamination, non-ODF villages were, on average:
- 11.25 times more likely to have their groundwater sources contaminated (12.7 times more from contaminants traceable to humans alone)
- 1.13 times more likely to have their soil contaminated
- 1.48 times more likely to have food contaminated and 2.68 times more likely to have household drinking water contaminated.
- The study findings indicated that these substantial reductions may potentially be attributed to the improvement in sanitation and hygiene practices.
IEC footprint study by Gates Foundation
- IES stands for Information, Education and Communication.
- The “Assessment of the reach and value of IEC activities under SBM (Grameen)” was conducted by Dalberg, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
- It estimated the scale of IEC activities within the Mission and assessed associated monetary and in-kind costs, and outputs such as reach.
- The study found that:
- SBM mobilized a spend equivalent worth INR 22,000 to 26,000 crores in monetary and non-monetary IEC activities.
- Of this spend equivalent, cash expenditure on IEC activities spent by the Government, private sector, and the development community was estimated to be between INR 3,500 – 4,000 crores.
- An average person living in rural India was exposed to between 2,500 – 3,300 SBM related messages over the last five years.