Air Pollution

Pollution from traffic affects foetal growth: study


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Effects of pollution on Infants


Results of a study

  1. According to the British Medical Journal, pregnant women who are exposed to road traffic pollution are more likely to deliver babies with low birth weight
  2. Why is weight important: Weight at the time of birth has an immediate bearing on an infant’s chances of survival — those with low birth weight are more likely to develop a range of complications

Particulars of the Study

  1. The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting foetal growth
  2. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes
  3. It observed that long-term exposure during pregnancy to NO2, NOx, PM2.5 overall, and specifically from traffic exhaust and non-exhaust sources, and PM10, were all associated with increased risk of low birth weight at term, across London


Issue of Low weight among children

  1. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), birth weight less than 2,500 g (5.5 lb) is considered low
  2. Low birth weight is regarded as a significant public health problem globally, and is associated with a range of both short- and long-term consequences
  3. Overall, it is estimated that 15-20 per cent of all births worldwide are affected by low birth weight, representing over 20 million births annually

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