From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Private members
Mains level : Private member’s Bill
- A nominated MP has introduced a private member’s Bill in the Rajya Sabha, seeking to enforce a two-child norm by giving incentives for those adopting the small family practice and penalties for those contravening it.
Population Regulation Bill, 2019
- The bill introduced in the Upper House, suggests that people with more than two living children should be “disqualified” from being chosen as an MP, MLA or a member of any body of the local self government after the commencement of the Act.
- Similarly, it suggests that government employees should give an undertaking that she or he will not procreate more than two children.
- It says those government employees who have more than two children on or before the commencement of the Act should be exempted.
- Other penalties include reduction in subsidies on loans and interest rates on savings instruments, reduction in benefits under the public distribution system, and higher than normal interest rates for availing loans from banks and financial institutions.
- The provisions also list out several benefits for Central and public sector enterprise employees who adopt the two-child norm “by undergoing sterilization operation himself or of the spouse”.
Why such bill?
- According to UN population projections, India is expected to become the most populated country by 2050.
- The Bill as stated is intended to create a balance between people and the resources, human resources as well as natural resources.
- 72 districts in the country have a total fertility rate of more than four children per woman.
- There is also a case of regional imbalance….while the southern and western states are better off, in the northern and eastern states of India, birth control is either not accepted or not applied.
Private member’s bill
- Members of Parliament other than ministers are called private members and bills presented by them are known as private member’s bills.
- A private member bill can be introduced by both ruling party and opposition MPs.
- They can introduce a bill in the parliament after giving prior notice of one month.
- The bill needs to be passed in both houses of parliament.
- Once passed in both the houses, bill needs to get assent of the president to become an act.
- By set tradition, President can easily exercise his absolute veto power against such bills.
- In Lok Sabha, the last two and a half hours of a sitting on every Friday are generally allotted for transaction of “Private Members’ Business”, i.e., Private Members’ Bills and Private Members’ Resolutions.