Mains Paper 1: Social issues | Urbanization, their problems and remedies
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Ease of Living Index
Mains level: Read the attached story
Ease of Living index 2018
- Three cities in Maharashtra — Pune, Navi Mumbai and Greater Mumbai — top the first Ease of Living Index brought out by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
- Pune tops while Patna ranked lowest of 111 cities
- The national capital, New Delhi, is ranked 65 among 111 cities, while Chennai is in 14th place. Kolkata did not participate in the survey
- The other cities in the top ten include Tirupati, Chandigarh, Thane, Raipur, Indore, Vijayawada and Bhopal
- The three cities at the bottom of the rankings are Rampur, Kohima and Patna.
Data deficiency doesn’t mean poor performance
- The cities which were unable or unwilling to provide data received low scores
- For example, New Delhi has a score of “zero” on indicators regarding inclusive housing and mixed land use and compactness, and a score of just 0.12 on the economy and employment
- This does not mean that the capital actually performs so poorly on these indicators
- Instead, it probably means that the authorities who govern the city simply failed to provide any data on those indicators
- In some cases, it was a challenge to collect some of this information from data-starved urban local bodies.
Importance of this ranking
- A city’s ranking reflects its ability to provide data, as well as its actual performance on four different parameters:
- Institutions or governance
- Social indicators
- Economic indicators
- Physical infrastructure
- The ranking marks a shift to a data-driven approach to urban planning and management
- The future editions of the Index may also incorporate citizen and stakeholder feedback rather than relying on government data alone.
Administrative bottlenecks need to be addressed
- If cities are not able to provide data, their ability to plan and use their resources is questionable
- Particular complications were seen in indicators such as health —where local governments did not have access to data from private hospitals.