Disasters and Disaster Management – Sendai Framework, Floods, Cyclones, etc.

RIMES terms Titli cyclone ‘rarest of rare’IOCR


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: RIMES

Mains level: Impact of such rarest cyclones on coast as well as hinterlands



  1. The severe cyclonic storm Titli left more than 60 people dead, mainly due to land slide in interior Gajapati district of Odisha.
  2. The Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES) for Africa and Asia, a 45-nation international organisation on disaster warning, has termed ‘Titli’as ‘rarest cyclone’.

Rarest in 200 Years

  1. More than 200 years of cyclone track history in the Odisha coast reveals that the Titli cyclone is the rarest of rare.
  2. The severe cyclone had changed its path after landfall.
  3. It is explained in terms of its characteristics such as recurvature after landfall and retaining its destructive potential after landfall and recurvature away from the coastal areas for more than two days.
  4. Considering the history of cyclone tracks, no synthetic track projection captures the Titli type of
  5. The forecast information available lacks actionable early warning information such as no indication of occurrence of secondary hazards, including landslides far away from the coasts.

Danger is not limited to Coast

  1. The State government actions linked to the cyclone-risk management is heavily focused on the coastal areas where cyclones cross at their peak intensities.
  2. Therefore, coastal areas now have been largely well managed through evacuations and other protocols, leading to zero casualties in these areas.
  3. The highest number of casualties occurred in a village called Baraghara in Gajapati district due to landslides.
  4. People did not evacuate, as the risk is unknown and also not expected. There was no pin-pointed forecast available what will happen where.


  1. The RIMES stands for Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia.
  2. It is an international and intergovernmental institution, owned and managed by its Member States, for the generation and application of early warning information.
  3. It was established on 30 April 2009, and was registered with the United Nations on 1 July 2009.
  4. It operates from its regional early warning center located at the campus of the Asian Institute of Technology in Pathumthani, Thailand.
  5. RIMES evolved from the efforts of countries in Africa and Asia, in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
  6. It aims to establish a regional early warning system within a multi-hazard framework for the generation and communication of early warning information, and capacity building for preparedness and response to trans-boundary hazards.
  7. RIMES caters to differential needs and demands of its Member States by enhancing capacities for end-to-end multi-hazard early warning, in particular:
  • Hazard monitoring, detection, analysis, prediction, and forecasting
  • Risk assessment
  • Potential impact analysis
  • Generation of tailored risk information at different time scales
  • Risk communication
  • Application of tailored risk information in decision-making
  1. The governing council is composed of heads of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and national scientific and technical agencies generating multi-hazard early warning information.
  2. The Council is empowered to make policy decisions, on behalf of governments, concerning regional early warning arrangements, for enhanced preparedness, response, and mitigation of natural hazards.
  3. Currently, India chairs the RIMES Council.

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