Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: INF Treaty, Avangard System
Mains level: Recent trend of USA’s disregard of bilateral and multilateral treaties and its impact on India as well as global geopolitics
INF treaty pull-back implications
- Russia has a tested new type of strategic weapon, the intercontinental “Avangard” system.
- The hypersonic missile could fly at 20 times the speed of sound and manoeuvre up and down, meaning that it could breach defence systems.
- The final test comes after U.S. announced plans to pull out of a key Cold War-era nuclear weapons pact, the three-decade-old Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF).
Avangard hyper-sonic boost-glide missile system
- Avangard, also known as “Objekt 4202,” is supposed to combine a high-performance ballistic missile with an unmanned glider vehicle for significant improvements in maneuverability and sustained top speed.
- It is powered by a scramjet engine that accelerates it up to Mach 27.
- When approaching a target, the glider is capable of sharp high speed evasive maneuvers in flight making it “absolutely invulnerable for any missile defence system”.
- This technology allows Avangard missiles to travel at up to 20 Mach or approximately 24,700 km per hour.
- It is a speed made possible by the use of “new composite materials” to stay within a stable range of 1,600 to 2,000 degrees Celsius.
- Its boost-glider system grants it “lateral” and “vertical” evasive maneuvers by “several thousand kms.