From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : About the index
Mains level : Gender equality in India
- A SDG Gender Index to measure global gender equality ranks India at 95th among 129 countries.
- This comes close on the heels of the Gender Gap Index of the World Economic Forum where India was ranked 108th.
SDG Gender Index
- It has been developed by Equal Measures 2030, a joint effort of regional and global organisations including African Women’s Development and Communication Network, Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation etc.
- It accounts for 14 out of 17 SDGs (sustainable development goals) that cover aspects such as poverty, health, education, literacy, political representation and equality at the workplace.
- A score of 100 reflects the achievement of gender equality in relation to the targets set for each indicator.
- It means, for example, that 100% of girls complete secondary education, or that there is around 50-50 parity for women and men in Parliament.
- A score of 50 signifies that a country is about halfway to meeting a goal.
Key findings for India
- India’s highest goal scores are on health (79.9), hunger & nutrition (76.2), and energy (71.8). Its lowest goal scores are on partnerships (18.3, in the bottom 10 countries worldwide), industry, infrastructure and innovation (38.1), and climate (43.4).
- On indicators that define such goals, India scored 95.3 on the percentage of female students enrolled in primary education who are overage.
- Some of India’s lowest scores on indicators include the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (score 23.6; women made up 11.8% of Parliament in 2018).
- On seats held by women in the Supreme Court (4%), India has a score of 18.2.
- On gender-based violence, indicators include proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18 (27.3%)
- Women who agreed that a husband/partner is justified in beating his wife/partner under certain circumstances (47.0%) and
- Women aged 15+ who reported that they “feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where she lives” (69.1%)
- The ranking found that the world is far from achieving gender equality with 1.4 billion girls and women living in countries that get a “very poor” grade.
- The global average score of the 129 countries — which represent 95% of the world’s girls and women — is 65.7 out of 100 (“poor” in the index).
- Altogether, 2.8 billion girls and women live in countries that get either a “very poor” (59 and below) or “poor” score (60-69) on gender equality.
- Just 8% of the world’s population of girls and women live in countries that received a “good” gender equality score (80-89) and no country achieved an “excellent” overall score of 90 or above.