From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : EAP
Mains level : Disaster management in India
- The amicus curiae appointed by the Kerala High Court to assist it in flood-related cases informed the court that the sudden release of water simultaneously from different reservoirs had aggravated the damage during the floods.
Poor dam management
- The dams in Kerala did not have an effective flood control zone and flood cushions.
- The flood cushion or flood control zone was a temporary storage space for absorbing high flow for alleviating downstream flood damage.
- None of the dams in the State were operated or used for the purpose of flood control and moderation, despite the obligation to utilise them for flood control as per the stipulations under the National Water Policy, National Disaster Management Authority guidelines on flood and RTIO (real-time integrated operation).
- It seemed that high reservoir storage and sudden release of water had resulted in worsening the floods.
- Various alerts (blue/orange/red) were issued not in accordance with the EAP (Emergency Action Plan) guidelines.
- No proper follow-up action and effective precautionary steps, especially for evacuating people and accommodating them in safe locations, were taken after the issue of red alert.
No EAP in dams
- None of the dams had EAP (Emergency Action Plan) despite the mandate of the National Disaster Management Authority to have it by 2009.
- The EAP was a written document prepared by the dam operator and it contained plans to prevent or lessen the impact of a failure of the dam or appurtenant structure.
- It could be inferred that most of the major reservoirs were almost full before the extreme rainfall and they did not have the capacity to accommodate the additional flow.
- This compelled the authorities to release substantial amount of water from reservoirs in a short span of time at the peak of the rainfall.
- Almost all dams released water only after the water level crossed the FRL (Full Reservoir Level) or reached the MWL (maximum water level).
Amicus Curiae to the Court
- An amicus curiae (literally, “friend of the court”; plural, amici curiae) is someone, who is not a party to a case and may or may not have been solicited by a party.
- It is he/she who assists a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case; and is typically presented in the form of a brief.