From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Malnutrition
Mains level : U5 malnutrition and mortality in India
- A report published in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health gives comprehensive estimates of disease burden due to child and maternal malnutrition and the trends of its indicators in every state of India from 1990 to 2017.
- The death rate attributable to malnutrition in under-5 children in India has dropped by two-thirds from 1990 to 2017.
- Malnutrition is, however, still the underlying risk factor for 68% of the deaths in under-five children in India.
- The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) rate attributable to malnutrition in children varies 7-fold among the states — a gap between a high of 74,782 in Uttar Pradesh and a low of 11,002 in Kerala.
- Other states with a high burden are Bihar, Assam and Rajasthan. followed by Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Nagaland and Tripura.
- The proportion of under-5 deaths attributable to malnutrition, which is 68.2% across India, ranges between a high of 72.7% in Bihar and a low of 50.8% in Kerala.
- Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh are states with a high such proportion, while Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram and Goa have the lowest proportions of such deaths.
- Among the malnutrition indicators, low birth weight is the largest contributor to child deaths in India, followed by child growth failure which includes stunting, underweight, and wasting.