Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

Toilet-for-all: WHO calls for more investmentIOCR


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

The following things are important from UPSC perspective:

Prelims Level: Particulars of the guidelines

Mains level: Need for investments on Sanitation


First Global Guidelines on Sanitation and Health

  1. In its first such guidelines, the WHO warned that world will not reach the goal of universal sanitation coverage by 2030 unless countries make comprehensive policy shifts and invest more funds.
  2. By adopting these new guidelines, countries can significantly reduce the diarrheal deaths due to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene.
  3. WHO developed the new guidelines because current sanitation programmes are not achieving anticipated health gains.
  4. There is a lack of authoritative health-based guidance on sanitation.

Four Principal Recommendations

  1. Sanitation interventions should ensure entire communities have access to toilets that safely contain excreta.
  2. The full sanitation system should be undergo local health risk assessments to protect individuals and communities from exposure to excreta – whether this be from unsafe toilets, leaking storage or inadequate treatment.
  3. Sanitation should be integrated into regular local government-led planning and service provision to avert the higher costs associated with retrofitting sanitation and to ensure sustainability.
  4. The health sector should invest more and play a coordinating role in sanitation planning to protect public health.

Why invest more on Sanitation?

  1. Poor sanitation is a major factor in transmission of neglected tropical diseases.
  2. For every US $1 invested in sanitation, WHO estimates a nearly six-fold return as measured by lower health costs, increased productivity and fewer premature deaths.
  3. Worldwide, 2.3 billion people lack basic sanitation with almost half forced to defecate in the open.
  4. They are among the 4.5 billion without access to safely managed sanitation services.
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