Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
The following things are important from UPSC perspective:
Prelims Level: Particulars of the guidelines
Mains level: Need for investments on Sanitation
First Global Guidelines on Sanitation and Health
- In its first such guidelines, the WHO warned that world will not reach the goal of universal sanitation coverage by 2030 unless countries make comprehensive policy shifts and invest more funds.
- By adopting these new guidelines, countries can significantly reduce the diarrheal deaths due to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene.
- WHO developed the new guidelines because current sanitation programmes are not achieving anticipated health gains.
- There is a lack of authoritative health-based guidance on sanitation.
Four Principal Recommendations
- Sanitation interventions should ensure entire communities have access to toilets that safely contain excreta.
- The full sanitation system should be undergo local health risk assessments to protect individuals and communities from exposure to excreta – whether this be from unsafe toilets, leaking storage or inadequate treatment.
- Sanitation should be integrated into regular local government-led planning and service provision to avert the higher costs associated with retrofitting sanitation and to ensure sustainability.
- The health sector should invest more and play a coordinating role in sanitation planning to protect public health.
Why invest more on Sanitation?
- Poor sanitation is a major factor in transmission of neglected tropical diseases.
- For every US $1 invested in sanitation, WHO estimates a nearly six-fold return as measured by lower health costs, increased productivity and fewer premature deaths.
- Worldwide, 2.3 billion people lack basic sanitation with almost half forced to defecate in the open.
- They are among the 4.5 billion without access to safely managed sanitation services.