Mains Paper 1: Arts and Culture| Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Intangible Cultural Heritage mentioned in the newscard
Mains level: India’s rich cultural treasure and ways to preserve it
- Jamaican reggae, Georgian wrestling and Japanese rituals are among the six new elements added by UN cultural agency UNESCO to its list of “intangible heritage” for the world to treasure.
- From the border between Asia and Europe, in Georgia, it added Chidaoba, which combines elements of wrestling, music, dance and special garments.
- The practice encourages a healthy lifestyle and plays an important role in intercultural dialogue, according to UNESCO, which called its code of conduct “chivalric”.
- It noted that occasionally the wrestlers leave the arena with a Georgian folk dance.
- It is a style of popular music with a strongly accented subsidiary beat, originating in Jamaica.
- It became widely known in the 1970s through the work of Bob Marley; its lyrics are much influenced by Rastafarian ideas.
- Reggae contributes to international discourse on issues of injustice, resistance, love and humanity underscores the dynamics of the element as being at once cerebral, socio-political, sensual and spiritual.
Japan’s Raiho-shin rituals
- They are used to admonish laziness and teach children good behavior.
- Stemming from folk beliefs that deities visit communities and usher in the new year or season, local people dress in outlandish costumes and visit houses as deities.
- By performing the rituals, local people — notably children — have their identities moulded, develop a sense of affiliation to their community, and strengthen ties among themselves.
Intangible Cultural Heritage
- The term ‘cultural heritage’ has changed content considerably in recent decades, partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO.
- Cultural heritage does not end at monuments and collections of objects.
- It also includes traditions or living expressions inherited from our ancestors and passed on to our descendants, such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festive events, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and skills to produce traditional crafts.
- The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
- Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms etc.
- UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.
- It designates projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:
- Global Geoparks Network
- Biosphere reserves (Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971)
- City of Literature
- Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects
- Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
- Memory of the World International Register, since 1997
- Water resources management (International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965)
- World Heritage sites
- World Digital Library