Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: UNSC
Mains level: Issues related to the UNSC, its membership, VETO power etc.
- The United Nations Security Council has adopted a resolution to extend sanctions against the Central African Republic (CAR) for another year.
- Resolution 2454, adopted unanimously by the 15-member council, decides to renew the sanctions regime – an arms embargo, travel ban and asset freeze till January 31, 2020.
- The French-drafted resolution says the council intends to establish benchmarks by April 30 on security sector reform, the demobilization and reintegration of combatants, and the management of weapons and ammunition.
- It asks the panel of experts monitoring the arms embargo and sanctions against individuals, which were also extended, to assess progress on the benchmarks by July 31.
- It further says that the council will review the arms embargo measures by Sept. 30.
- The panel of experts said in its latest report that it granted several exemptions to allow shipments of weapons from France, Russia, China, the United States and Belgium for CAR’s army.
Why such move?
- Central African Republic has been wracked by interreligious and intercommunal fighting since 2013, and violence has intensified and spread in the past year.
- Repeated cycles of violence in one of the world’s poorest nations “have pushed people’s resistance to breaking point.
- A majority of Central African Republic’s 2.9 million people “urgently need humanitarian support.
- Russia and the European Union have sent military advisers to train CAR’s poorly equipped army.
United Nations Security Council
- The UNSC is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security.
- Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions.
- It is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
- The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States—serve as the body’s five permanent members.
- These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General.
- The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.