Mains Paper 1: Geography | Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc
From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Mount Soputan
Mains level: Volcanic eruptions and Plate Tectonics Theory
Mount Soputan erupts
- A volcano, Mount Soputan has erupted in Indonesia’s North Sulawesi province spewing a column of ash measuring 7.5 km to the sky.
- Soputan is a small stratovolcano that rises to an elevation of 1,784m (5,853 ft).
- The cone is made of andesite and basalt rock.
- The volcano is one of Sulawesi’s most active, with 39 confirmed eruptions in the last 600 years.
- It is one of 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia which lies on a vulnerable quake-hit zone called “the Pacific Ring of Fire”.
Pacific Ring of Fire
- The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
- In a large 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and plate movements.
- It has 452 volcanoes (more than 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes).
- About 90% of the world’s earthquakes and 81% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire.
- The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics: the movement and collisions of lithospheric plates, especially subduction in the northern portion.