From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Water Crisis Index
Mains level : Drinking water crisis in India
Water Stress Index
- The sub-national Water Stress Index is formulated by London-based risk analytics firm Verisk Maplecroft.
- It lists India as the 46th highest risk country in the world.
- 11 of India’s 20 largest cities face an ‘extreme risk’ of water stress and seven are in the ‘high risk’ category.
- According to the index, Delhi, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Nashik, Jaipur, Ahmedabad and Indore are among the cities facing ‘extreme risk’.
- The index measures the water consumption rates of households, industries and farm sectors and the available resources in rivers, lakes and streams.
Indian cities are at risk
- According to the report the average population growth rate among the 11 extreme risk cities is 49%; more than 127 million people will call them home by 2035.
- The UN estimates that Delhi’s population will grow from 28 million people to above 43 million by 2035, a 52% rise while Chennai will grow by 47% to top 15 million over the same period.
- The study says Chennai is the tip of the iceberg for India’s water stressed cities.