Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Not much
Mains level: Prepare urban floods, causes, solutions etc.
- From Assam in the north-east to Rajasthan and Gujarat in the west, floods are taking a heavy toll on lives and property this year.
- As per latest reports, 82 and over 100 flood-related deaths have been recorded in the states of Assam and Gujarat, respectively.
Has flood-related damage increased in India over time?
- Flood-related loss of both human and cattle lives and economic damages have come down over time.
- However, there has been a significant change in the nature of flood-related losses in India.
- Central Water Commission (CWC) gives detailed estimates of economic loss and loss of human and cattle lives due to floods from 1953-2016
- The 1970s was the worst decade in terms of loss human and cattle lives due to floods in India. These losses have come down since then.
- Although absolute economic losses have been increasing, the relative economic damage has come down
Flood related losses?
- Floods resulted in loss of 86% of the total GDP in the 1970s and 1980s.
- In the present decade, this share has come down to 1% of the GDP.
- Until the 1970s, damage to crops was the biggest component of economic loss due to floods. Over time, damage to public utilities has acquired the biggest share in flood-related losses.
- A 2015 World Resources Institute study had shown that expanding cities and worsening climate challenges can significantly increase flood-related risks in India.