Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
The following things are important from UPSC perspective:
Prelims Level: Aerobics 150
Mains level: WHO Guidelines for Physical Activity
- Reiterating the need for physical activity to reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), the WHO has prescribed 150 minutes of weekly physical activity.
- It emphasized that physical inactivity is now identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality.
Hazards of physical inactivity
- The WHO warned that physical inactivity levels are rising in many countries with major implications for the prevalence of NCDs and the general health of the population worldwide.
- Physical inactivity is estimated to be the main cause for approximately 21%-25% of breast and colon cancers, 27% of diabetes and approximately 30% of ischemic heart disease burden.
- Regular and adequate levels of physical activity in adults reduces the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, depression and the risk of falls.
WHO Guidelines on Aerobics
- There is strong evidence to demonstrate that adults between the ages of 18 to 64 should do:
- at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week
- at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week, or
- an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity
- Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.
- For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes per week.
- Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on two or more days a week.
- Children and youth aged 5-17 years should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
- Amounts of physical activity greater than 60 minutes provide additional health benefits.
- Physical activity has also been associated with psychological benefits in young people by improving their control over symptoms of anxiety and depression.
- The WHO noted that physical activity provides young people opportunities for self-expression, building self-confidence, social interaction and integration.
- It has also been suggested that physically active young people more readily adopt healthy behaviors (For example, avoidance of tobacco, alcohol and drug use) and demonstrate higher academic performance.