Labour, Jobs and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc.

World Population Day: What ails the Youth of India


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development and employment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: The newscard gives a quick recap of the issues faced by Indian Youth despite unemployment.


Liabilities to Indian Youth

  1. Plagued with problems ranging from stress, unmet family planning needs, unbalanced diets and gender disparities in labour, the Indian youth seems far from turning into an aggressive workforce in future.
  2. Population dynamics, marital statistics, fertility and contraception, mortality and neonatal health care, literacy and employment play important roles in the lives of young men and women.

Family Planning- the multifaceted problem

  1. An unmet need for family planning not only affects the abilities of men and women to plan families, but it also decreases overall well-being.
  2. It limits opportunities to increase earnings, participate in the workforce, access health services, and pursue their own education and that of their children.

Stress remains a major factor

  1. The Cigna 360° Well-Being Survey 2018 done by Cigna TTK Health Insurance covering nearly 14,500 people in 23 markets around the world reveals that stress levels are high in India compared with other developed and emerging countries.
  2. About 89% of the population in India said they are suffering from stress compared with the global average of 86%.

Women are worst hit

  1. The statistics are also disturbing for women in the workforce. A report by the ministry of statistics and programme implementation—Youth in India-2017—stated that during 2011-12, about 55% of males and about 18 % of females in rural areas were in the labour force.
  2. Whereas the corresponding percentages in urban areas were about 56% for males and about 13% for females.
  3. The lack of infrastructure, unavailability of basic amenities at workplaces, rigid and inflexible work hours, the absence of care facilities at or near the workplaces have not motivated women to participate in the labour market significantly.
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