Why are floods so destructive in Assam? What are the solutions to overcome it?

Mentors Comments:
In the intro, highlight the recent events in Assam where floods have created havoc and mention how it is a recurring theme every year in the state
In the first part of the main body discuss the reasons behind this phenomenon. You can divide your discussion in 2 parts: Natural Reasons and Man Made Reasons.
In the 2nd part of the main body, address the second part of the question, which is solutions to the problem.
End the answer with decent conclusion

Answer:
Assam is in the grip of yet another flood, with 57 lakh people affected across all 33 districts, and 36 people killed besides hundreds of animals. This is the first wave of floods this monsoon, and flood control experts expect at least two more. While floods are a regular annual feature in Assam, some years witness more destruction than others. In terms of impact on human lives, the floods of 1988, 1998 and 2004 were the worst; the 2004 floods alone affected 12.4 million people and claimed 251 lives.

Reasons for flood proneness in Assam:
It is a mix of natural and man-made factors.
Natural Factors:
The Brahmaputra, a trans-boundary river and among the mightiest rivers in Asia, is braided and unstable in its entire reach in Assam except for a few places.
Topography of Assam and meteorological factor (high rainfall) are the obvious reason behind Assam floods every year.
The vast amount of sediment comes from Tibet, where the river originates. That region is cold, arid and lacks plantation. Glaciers melt, soil erodes and all of it results in a highly sedimented river
As the river comes from a high slope to a flat plain, its velocity decreases suddenly and this results in the river unloading the sediment
The silt causes the level of riverbed to rise. As a result, the natural longitudinal (straight) course of the river is disturbed. Therefore the river searches for a lateral path (left or right).
As a result it changes its course and breaches the embankments on the new path it has created. The breach of embankments causes floods.
More than 80% of these embankments have not been reinforced in several decades because there is a huge contractor-administration nexus that benefits monetarily from a flood situation.
The earthquake-prone nature of the region, the river has not been able to acquire a stable character. Following the devastating earthquake of 1950, the level of the Brahmaputra rose by two metres in Dibrugarh area in eastern Assam.
The man-made factors
Habitation, deforestation, population growth in catchment areas (including in China), encroachment of river banks and wetlands, lack of drainage, unplanned urban growth, hill cutting — which lead to higher sedimentation. For example, the sediment deposition itself creates temporary sandbars or river islands.
The dams that are being built are further creating disasters.
The wetlands forests and local water bodies are being systematically destroyed which in turn is adding to the disaster vulnerability of the area

Measures needed:
Realising the severity of the problem, flood control measures in Assam started in 1954 with the announcement of the National Policy for Flood by the Government of India.
Construction of Embankments and Flood walls
River training and bank protection works
Anti erosion and town protection works
River channelization with pro siltation device
Drainage improvement/ Sluices
Raised Platform
Flood forecasting and warning
Flood zoning
Interlinking of rivers may be one option, whereby the excess water from the flood-prone eastern India can be diverted to the water-scarce regions. However, for that a thorough environmental impact assessment is needed.
Government of Assam is planning to dredge the Brahmaputra from Sadiya to Dhubri to increase its storage capacity and mitigate flood-induced damages.
An “integrated basin management” system that should ideally bring in all the basin-sharing countries on board.
It is important to monitor the run-off and hydrological data in the upper catchment areas, particularly in Tibet before the onset of the monsoon for which cooperation at the regional, national and international levels is required.
On the basis of these data, warning can be issued well in advance so that people and livestock can be moved to safer places.
Conclusion:

Flood in Assam is unavoidable. The people must be enabled to enhance their adaptability so that the flood-induced damages can be minimised. As against the ad hoc, piecemeal, short-term structural measures adopted now, an integrated basin management approach for the rivers needs to be adopted (Goswami 2008). A comprehensive plan involving all the stakeholders (dam owners, upstream and downstream people) is needed. It should focus on ex ante and ex post measures. Moreover, timely relief to the victims of the basic necessities like food, medicine and drinking water needs to be ensured.

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parth vermapranab prakashShubham Mohanproject _osirisPrakhar Bharadwaj Recent comment authors
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sourav singh
Member
Er S
Admin

Good intro highlighting Brahmaputra as it causes flooding (could have been better aligned with the question)
good points but more crisp sentences are required and a better presentation.
First reasons for floods being destructive could be divided into natural and manmade.
In solutions, mention short term and long term.
Conclusion mentioning basin sharing countries becomes too far fetched. It should highlight way forward for domestic efforts

Marks
6
Mohsin Khursheed
Member

Sir Kindly review mine as well
Thank you

Mohsin Khursheed
Member

Q2. MOJO9615J00A46183569

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Er S
Admin

good quote. good introduction.
good points in general.
Issues-
1. Lack of technical terms. Read 2-3 news articles on the same.
2. No diagrams – Natural and Manmade can come in the form of a tree with points below it.
3. no need to mention impacts as it has not been asked + you already have many points for the answer.
The conclusion seems okay.

Marks
7
kalai yarasan
Member

How you upload this answer copy in it

Er S
Admin

refresh. you will see the upload options.

Murari Jha
Member

q2
MOJO9708E00A65259027

Parth Verma
Admin

Hye Murari
Your overall discussion is on good track.
you have mentioned various elements for the flooding.
The discussion on the man-made reasons can be made better with more relevant points.
The way forward is good. To add more dimensions to it, read the model answers.
All in all decent attempt.

Marks
5
mud borne
Member

Please review

Thanks

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Parth Verma
Admin

Hi Mud Borne
Do not start the answer right away. Do discuss intro of the situation. Make it a habit always to write an intro.
You can write something like this:
Assam is in the grip of yet another flood, with 57 lakh people affected across all 33 districts, and 36 people killed besides hundreds of animals. This is the first wave of floods this monsoon, and flood control experts expect at least two more. While floods are a regular annual feature in Assam, some years witness more destruction than others. In terms of impact on human lives, the floods of 1988, 1998 and 2004 were the worst; the 2004 floods alone affected 12.4 million people and claimed 251 lives.
The main body and overall, the whole answer, lacks depth and proper content.
There are so many points in the 1st part to be discussed but you missed most of them.
Similarly in the solutions part, there are plethora of solutions that could have been given.
Hence answer suffers from the general discussion and lack of content.

Secondly, you have given 3 solutions but have contradicted 2 of them in the same discussion. For example you said dams and reservoirs could be a solution but at the same time you said that they might create issue and Arunanchal Pradesh stopped construction of a dam. Similarly, you said desiltation and dredging can be a solution but in the same statement you said “But Inadequate as the process is undone by the large volume of the river sediments”

What is the point of giving solutions when: (a) they are weak and (b) you yourself claiming in the answer that they are weak.

Work on your concepts and language. read the model answers.

Marks
2
kalai yarasan
Member

Ans :2 Assam flood

Parth Verma
Admin

Hi Kalai
If you a are a paid student do not forget to mention your payment ID when you upload the answers.
Better intro is needed. You can mention the situation of flood and the effect it had on the state of Assam.
Its better to divide the subheading of the 1st part into two sub parts: Man Made Reasons and Natural reasons.
Your natural reasons need more and better explanation.
Similarly man made reasons need more points.
read the model answers.
The area is earthquake prone hence solutions of huge dam should be avoided.
Read the model answer for more points. Right now, in terms of content, presentation and explanation, answer is weak.

Marks
2
Kunal Aggarwal
Member

Ans

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Parth Verma
Admin

Hi Kunal
Your discussion in the 1st part is satisfactory.
But your content and discussion on the 2nd part regarding solutions need enhancement.
This issue is very lengthy and it is suitable if you avoid paragraph to describe the solutions or explain them. Just mention the solutions.
Read the model answer in this regard.
Very good conclusion.

Marks
5
Prakhar Bharadwaj
Member

Ans

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Parth Verma
Admin

Hi Prakhar
Good use of diagram
You gave 3 reasons for the frequent flooding of Brahmaputra out of whch 2 are good. The one is more of an impact and not reasons per se
Also you can divide the subheading into two sub sets: Natural and Man Made Reasons.
You missed to discuss the man made reasons like encroachment, destruction of water sources along Brahmaputra which act as natural barrier and sponge during floods, corruption in the construction of Embankments and Flood walls etc.
Read the model answer.
Similarly, the discussion on dams in solutions has some parts which can be edited and removed.
More and better points are needed.

Very good conclusion.

Marks
3
project _osiris
Member

2

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Parth Verma
Admin

Hi
Good discussion in the 1st part but more explanation was required when you discussed the natural reasons for the flooding in the river.
You missed to discuss various important points in the subheading of man made reasons like encroachment, destruction of water sources along Brahmaputra which act as natural barrier and sponge during floods, weak construction of Embankments and Flood walls etc.
The 2nd part is dealt with nicely.
You have covered almost all the necessary elements of the solutions that can be provided. Very good discussion in that part.
Write a brief conclusion.
Work on your presentation skills.

Marks
4
Shubham Mohan
Member

Sir please review

Parth Verma
Admin

Hi Shubham
The answer is copied from the newspaper source as it is and word by word.
It will fetch you marks meanwhile but will not help you in the long run.
Take the help of articles and notes but use them in your own language otherwise you will not get much out of it.
In the real exam, you wont have the luxury of these online notes.
Good conclusion.

Marks
4
pranab prakash
Member

Payment ID MOJO9611300N14575632

Parth Verma
Admin

Hi Pranab
Good 1st half.
Your intro and 1st part of the main body is good.
In the discussion regarding solutions, you can add more points. Refer the model answer for those points.
Good conclusion.
Decent attempt.

Marks
5