Prelims tit-bits- History part 1

1. Important sessions of Congress

  • 1885- 1st, Bomaby, presided by W.C. Banerjee
  • 1887- Badruddin Tyabji became 1st muslim to preside over congress session
  • 1907- Surat, Ras Bihari Ghosh not Bose, split in Congress b/w moderates and extremists
  • 1916- Lucknow, Reunion on congress, Lucknow pact b/w congress and muslim league
  • 1920- Nagpur, A new constitution for congress, congress reorganized
  • 1929-Lahore, J.L. Nehru, Purna Swaraj Resolution
  • 1931-Karachi, Vallabh Bhai, Resolution on Fundamental rights and National Economic Programme
  • 1938- Haripura, S.C. Bose, National Planning Committee under J.L. Nehru

Discuss- New things in new constitution of congress

Discuss- 1st non Indian and 1st woman president of congress

2. Gandhi’s styagrahas

  • Champaran (1917)- 1st civil disobedience movement, against tinkathia system of indigo planters <3/20th>, Followers- Rajendra Prasad, Mahadeo Desai, J.B.Kriplani
  • Ahmedabad Mill strike (1918)-1st hunger strike, over the discontinuation of plague bonuses, increase in wages
  • Kheda (1918)- 1st non cooperation movement, for compensation in the event of crop loss, Followers- Sardar Patel, Indulal yagnil
  • Rowlatt Satyagrah (1919)- 1st mass strike, roped in younger elements of Home Rule Leagues and Pan-Islamists

Discuss- Gandhi’s Satyagrahas in South Africa

3. Important Peasant movements

  • Mapiilla revolt (1920s)- malabar region, Muslim tenants, Hindu landlords (Jennies), anti govt, anti landlord movement acquired distinct communal overtones
  • Eka movement (1921)- against high rents, oppression of thikadars, in northern districts of UP, led by Madarai Pasi and low caste leader, symbolic religious rituals to unify <eka means ekta or unity>
  • Bardoli Satyagraha (1926-28)- against increase in land revenue, Kunbi-Patidars, led by VAllabh Bhai, women of bardoli gave him the name, Sardar <eventually revenue hike reduced from 30% to 6%>
  • Tebhaga movement (1946)- in Bengal to increase share of bargadars (share croppoers) to 2/3rd from ½ ,<tebhaga meaning three parts>
  • All India Kisan Congress/ Sabha in 1936- President swami sahjanand, secretary N.G. Ranga

Discuss- Contribution of Kisan sabhas

 

4. Important Working class movement

  • All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) founded in 1920 under Lala Lajpat, Dewan Chaman Ali 1st general secretary
  • Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929-33)- Sedition charges on labour leaders (Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Muzaffar Ahmed and 30 others)
  • Huge participation of workers in Civil disobedience movement /(1930)
  • Workers opposed the 2nd world war but supported British (allies) when Russia joined on their side in 1941 and communist did not support quit India movement

Discuss– Socialist tendencies in national movement

 

                        

By Dr V

Doctor by Training | AIIMSONIAN | Factually correct, Politically not so much | Opinionated? Yes!