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Prelims tit-bits- History part 1

 Dr V
  • 1. Important sessions of Congress

    • 1885- 1st, Bomaby, presided by W.C. Banerjee
    • 1887- Badruddin Tyabji became 1st muslim to preside over congress session
    • 1907- Surat, Ras Bihari Ghosh not Bose, split in Congress b/w moderates and extremists
    • 1916- Lucknow, Reunion on congress, Lucknow pact b/w congress and muslim league
    • 1920- Nagpur, A new constitution for congress, congress reorganized
    • 1929-Lahore, J.L. Nehru, Purna Swaraj Resolution
    • 1931-Karachi, Vallabh Bhai, Resolution on Fundamental rights and National Economic Programme
    • 1938- Haripura, S.C. Bose, National Planning Committee under J.L. Nehru

    Discuss- New things in new constitution of congress

    Discuss- 1st non Indian and 1st woman president of congress

    2. Gandhi’s styagrahas

    • Champaran (1917)- 1st civil disobedience movement, against tinkathia system of indigo planters <3/20th>, Followers- Rajendra Prasad, Mahadeo Desai, J.B.Kriplani
    • Ahmedabad Mill strike (1918)-1st hunger strike, over the discontinuation of plague bonuses, increase in wages
    • Kheda (1918)- 1st non cooperation movement, for compensation in the event of crop loss, Followers- Sardar Patel, Indulal yagnil
    • Rowlatt Satyagrah (1919)- 1st mass strike, roped in younger elements of Home Rule Leagues and Pan-Islamists

    Discuss- Gandhi’s Satyagrahas in South Africa

    3. Important Peasant movements

    • Mapiilla revolt (1920s)- malabar region, Muslim tenants, Hindu landlords (Jennies), anti govt, anti landlord movement acquired distinct communal overtones
    • Eka movement (1921)- against high rents, oppression of thikadars, in northern districts of UP, led by Madarai Pasi and low caste leader, symbolic religious rituals to unify <eka means ekta or unity>
    • Bardoli Satyagraha (1926-28)- against increase in land revenue, Kunbi-Patidars, led by VAllabh Bhai, women of bardoli gave him the name, Sardar <eventually revenue hike reduced from 30% to 6%>
    • Tebhaga movement (1946)- in Bengal to increase share of bargadars (share croppoers) to 2/3rd from ½ ,<tebhaga meaning three parts>
    • All India Kisan Congress/ Sabha in 1936- President swami sahjanand, secretary N.G. Ranga

    Discuss- Contribution of Kisan sabhas

     

    4. Important Working class movement

    • All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) founded in 1920 under Lala Lajpat, Dewan Chaman Ali 1st general secretary
    • Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929-33)- Sedition charges on labour leaders (Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Muzaffar Ahmed and 30 others)
    • Huge participation of workers in Civil disobedience movement /(1930)
    • Workers opposed the 2nd world war but supported British (allies) when Russia joined on their side in 1941 and communist did not support quit India movement

    Discuss– Socialist tendencies in national movement

     

                            


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  •  GAURAV KUMAR @gaurav-kumar2

    Dr V. Declassification of Netaji files was lot in news. Requesting you to kindly make explainer or tit bits surrounding Nnetaji’s contribution to the Indian National freedom struggle?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      will do that

  •  Bhupesh Kumar @bhupesh-kumar1

    Discuss-2 Gandhi’s satyagrahas in SA
    two phases
    1.MODERATE PHASE-PETITION,NATAL INDIAN CONGRESS,PAPER INDIAN OPINION
    2. PASSIVE RESISTANCE PHASE(SATYAGRAHA)-CAMPAING AGIANST
    (A).REGISTRATION CERTIFICATES,(B).RESTRICTION ON INDIAN MIGRATION
    (C)POLL TAX AND INVALIDATION OF INDIAN MARRIAGES
    ALSO SETTING UP OF TOLSTOY FARM.

    DURING THIS 2 DECADE LONG STRUGGLE GANDHI DEVELOPED TECHNIQUE OF SATYAGRAHA BASED ON TRUTH AND NON-VIOLENCE AND OBSERVED THAT
    1.MASSES HAD IMMENSE CAPACITY TO PARTICIPATE FOR A CAUSE THAT MOVED THEM.
    2.DIFFERENT CASTES CAN BE UNITED.

  •  Krishna Kunal @kunalkrishna85

    “1929-Lahore, J.L. Nehru, Purna Swaraj Resolution” is fine but when was “Swaraj” adopted as resolution ??

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Btw check. I think 1906 session bhi there was talk of swaraj

    •  chandrasekhar naik m @chandrasekhar-naik-m

      yes its 1906 sesssion of INC at calcatta presided by dadabhai nouroji. to satisfy the extemists for the first time swaraj word is used stating’ swaraj is the long term goal of INC’

    •  akash kumar @chotalal1991

      ya right sawaraj word 1st used by tilak during swadeshi andolan

    •  Sumona Dey @sumonadey

      yes. in 1906 calcutta session dadabhai naoroji first time talked about swaraj. In that way he first brought the concept of swaraj related to indian freedom struggle.

    •  saran vs @saran-vs1

      Thanks

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      Thora aapko bhi find karna hai naa.. in 1920 session when constituton was changed congress committed itself to the attainment of swaraj by all peaceful and legitimate means but concept of swaraj was left undefined.

      Even before that congress leaders talked of swaraj but no resolution as such was adopted and it had to be attained though cinstitutional means not legitimate.

      Baaki dig in history, you would no more

  •  Sanjoy Biswas @sanjoy-biswas

    Sorry for this query…please share the link of Prelims tit-bits- Polity part 1

  •  Butterfly @sunita-khola

    Swaraj party formed in 1923,m i right?

    •  Dr V @dr-v

      yess.

      You are right. swaraj party was formed in jan 1923 after gaya session of dec 1922.

      Keep writing and reading. You are doing awesome

  •  Jayansh Singh @jayanshsingh22

    One more important Congress session that I would like to add is Gaya, 1922. C. R. Das presided over it and Swarajya Party was formed. I guess it has already been asked in some UPSC exam, either CSE or some other.

  •  Navneet Krishna @krishnanavneet

    Discuss– 4. Socialist tendencies in national movement
    Most of the leaders were inspired by the Freedom Struggles in other nations/uprisings against selfish rulers, which were mostly based on socialist ideas. Also the writings of Socialist of those times were gaining popularity in those times like those of JS Mill, Bentham etc. had a great share in shaping the lives of leaders who had realised that only in the Good of all citizens lies the good of an individual. Gandhiji led from the front the National Movement and was inspired by the same motto given in the book unto the last. Also the 1938 Congress Session presided by SC Bose started the framework for PLanning in INdia, which is a concept borrowed from Socialist Economy like USSR.

  •  Navneet Krishna @krishnanavneet

    New Things in New Constittuion of Congress- I) Day to day working of the Congress to be carried out by the Congress Working Committee

    1st non Indian – George Yule 1888-ALLAHABAD
    and 1st woman president of congress – Ms. Annie besant (worked mostly in Chennai) but was President at the Calcutta Session (1917) which happened after the Lucknow Session.
    PS: The President of the Sessions usually didnt belong to the the city where it had to take place.

    •  krager kring @kragermumbai

      max sessions happened in Calcutta, followed by Madras and Bombay.

    •  ravi romeo @raviravitheromeoromeo

      1st Indian Woman President of INC (Kanpur Session – 1925) – Sarojini Naidu

    •  Krishna Kunal @kunalkrishna85

      Mrs Annie Besant (1917) @ Calcutta

This topic contains 20 replies, has 14 voices, and was last updated by  krager kring 1 year, 3 months ago.



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