Daily Current Affairs for IAS & UPSC Preparation

All current affairs available date-wise and month-wise. Watchout for Back2basics and Notes4students.


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Global warming- Causes & Effects Climate Change

India’s temperature rose by 0.60 degree Celsius over last 110 years: govt

  1. Source: The Indian Meteorological Department
  2. India’s temperature has risen by nearly 0.60 degree Celsius over the last 110 years
  3. Also, extreme events like heat waves have increased in the last 30 years
  4. Trends in extreme rainfall events in last century showed significant positive trend over the west coast and northwestern parts of peninsula
  5. As per the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2014, globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature has risen by 0.85 degree Celsius over the period 1880 to 2012
  6. NAPCC: The government has launched the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) in June, 2008 to deal with climate change and related issues
  7. NAPCC comprises of eight missions in specific areas of solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, habitat, water, sustaining Himalayan ecosystems, forestry, agriculture and strategic knowledge for climate change
  8. These missions address the issues relating to mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change on environment, forests, habitat, water resources and agriculture
  9. All states and UTs have also been requested to prepare State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC) in line with the objectives of the NAPCC highlighting state-specific issues relating to climate change
  10. So far, 32 states and UTs have prepared their SAPCC

Note4students:

The data can be used in mains answer. The details about NAPCC are important for prelims. You can read the basics here.

International Space Agencies – Missions and Discoveries Explorations in S&T

Sands of Saturn’s moon Titan are electrically charged

  1. Source: The findings published in the journal Nature Geoscience
  2. An odd phenomenon: Prevailing winds on Titan blow from east to west across the moon’s surface, but sandy dunes nearly 300 feet tall seem to form in the opposite direction
  3. Explanation by the study: The particles that cover the surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, are electrically charged
  4. These electrostatic forces increase frictional thresholds
  5. This makes the grains so sticky and cohesive that only heavy winds can move them
  6. The prevailing winds aren’t strong enough to shape the dunes

 

Employment scenario- India & World Governance

Centre may expand social security net

  1. News: The Employees’ Provident Fund Organidation’s central board of trustees will meet
  2. Aim: To consider extending social security benefits to volunteers under anganwadi, mid-day meal and Accredited Social Health Activists (Asha) schemes
  3. The EPFO has proposed to the Labour ministry that a lower contributory rate of 10% of income towards the Employees’ Provident Fund be allowed for scheme workers as against 12% contribution stipulated for the organised workers
  4. Need: According to estimates, there are 14 lakh Anganwadi workers, 12 lakh Anganwadi helpers, 25.50 lakh mid-day meal workers in the country
  5. However, There is no mandatory social security cover for such scheme workers at present
  6. The Centre can issue a notification to cover any class of establishments with a lower contributory rate under the Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
  7. This will only be applicable to scheme workers in organisations employing at least 20 workers
  8. Providing social security coverage to the unorganised workers has been one of the key demands of the central trade unions
  9. Wage ceiling: The EPFO will also consider a proposal to increase wage ceiling for its social security coverage to Rs 25,000 a month from Rs 15,000 a month at present
  10. At present, EPF is optional for employees earning more than Rs 15,000 a month
  11. Aim: To bring more workers under the provident fund net
  12. The purpose of revision of wage ceiling is to ensure that on increase in wages due to inflation etc, minimum social security benefits are continuously made available to intended beneficiaries
  13. Timely revision of wage ceiling is of utmost importance to ensure that new employees who are joining establishments covered under the EPF & MP Act, 1952 are assured of PF benefits
  14. Fiscal burden: However, the move may lead to additional financial burden on the Union government as it contributes 1.16% of the employee’s salary as subsidy towards the Employees’ Pension Scheme

Note4students:

Very important step for social security of low earning workers. Note the problems with present scheme, the need for proposed steps- for mains.

Back2basics:

1. India is home to the largest population of malnourished and hunger-stricken people and children leading to high infant and maternal mortality. Along with these issues are a deluge of problems ranging from diseases, lack of education, lack of hygiene, illness, etc.

2. To combat this situation, the Government of India in 1975 initiated the Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme which operates at the state level to address the health issues of small children, all over the country. It is one of the largest child care programmes in the world aiming at child health, hunger, mal nutrition and its related issues.

3. Under the ICDS scheme, one trained person is allotted to a population of 1000, to bridge the gap between the person and organized healthcare, and to focus on the health and educational needs of children aged 0-6 years. This person is the Anganwadi worker.

4. The Anganwadi worker and helper are the basic functionaries of the ICDS who run the anganwadi centre and implement the ICDS scheme in coordination with the functionaries of the health, education, rural development and other departments. Their services also include the health and nutrition of pregnant women, nursing mothers, and adolescent girls.

Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) is a trained female community health activist. Selected from the community itself and accountable to it, the ASHA will be trained to work as an interface between the community and the public health system. One of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission is to provide every village in the country with a ASHA.

Minority issues – Dalits, OBC, Reservations, etc. Health, Education & Human Resources

U.K. begins consultation on caste discrimination

  1. News: The British government published details of a public consultation on whether caste should be introduced as an aspect of race in anti-discrimination legislation
  2. It said that there is “no place” for any form of prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s origins
  3. Also, it wanted to be careful not to create or entrench any notion of caste consciousness or caste-based practices into British society, which may prove counterproductive or divisive
  4. This consultation is about how to ensure that there are appropriate and proportionate legal protection against unlawful discrimination because of a person’s origins with due consideration given to how such protections would be implemented in practice

Note4students:

Very much needed step in Indian context too. Can be quoted as an example in a mains answer, especially in ethics.

Mining banned for four months in Uttarakhand

  1. News: The Uttarakhand High Court ordered ‘complete’ ban on mining activities in the State for four months
  2. HC ordered that a high-power committee be constituted to assess the expanse of river bed mining in the State and submit a report
  3. Background: The move comes four days after a forest worker was allegedly killed in Ramnagar while he was chasing the mining mafia

Note4students:

Not directly important but keep track of the issue. It may be quoted in mains answer.

Pellet guns still an option: govt.

  1. Source: Government’s statement in the Lok Sabha
  2. Pellet guns may be used by security forces in the Kashmir Valley to disperse “rioters” if other alternatives failed

Note4students:

Nothing new here, but you can read about pellet guns and previous changes introduced here.

Judicial Pendency Constitution

SC orders installation of CCTV cameras inside district courts

  1. News: In a novel experiment, the Supreme Court directed that CCTV cameras to be installed inside lower courts in at least two districts in every State and Union Territory within the next three months
  2. Significance: It may be a perceived as a small step towards changing the status quo and re-igniting the debate on whether public should be given access to judicial proceedings as a positive measure towards dispelling opacity
  3. The footage from these videos or feeds will not be open for public access under the Right to Information Act
  4. It will not be supplied to anyone without the permission of the concerned High Courts
  5. Background: Unlike the parliament and legislative bodies across the country, judicial proceedings inside a court room has been a closely-guarded affair with no access given to prying eyes
  6. Court recordings are neither recorded via audio or video
  7. Judges in India have always defended their freedom to engage in their work away from the eyes of the camera unlike in some other countries and international courts

Note4students:

Important step towards transparency.

Swachh Bharat Mission Governance

[op-ed snap] The twin pit solution

Context:

  1. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has set October 2, 2019 as the target date for rural India to be Open Defecation Free (ODF)
  2. Remarkable progress has been achieved, but there is still a very long way to go

The current situation:

  1. In rural north India, at least half the toilets that are functioning are not used by all members of the household all the time
  2. Often, the toilet is used sparingly, to delay it filling and to postpone all the costs and  pollution entailed in getting it emptied
  3. The solution widely favoured by rural people is to construct a septic tank, a large, sealed underground chamber, the larger the better
  4. They are too expensive for many poor people
  5. Septic tanks are the aspiration, which deflects attention from cheaper, better, more sustainable solutions; masons also recommend septic tanks because they can make more money from construction

Government recommendation:

  1. The government recommendation is the much smaller and cheaper twin pit
  2. This has two leach pits, with a ‘Y’ junction, so that one pit can be filled at a time
  3. The practice is to fill one, which may take the average family five to eight years, cover it over when nearly full, and leave it to stand while the second pit is used
  4. After about a year, the contents of the first pit have turned into harmless— and valuable — fertiliser: A family’s waste turns from being a liability in a septic tank to a growing asset
  5. Each visit to the loo is an investment; the more it is used, the quicker will be the return
  6. The pit can be emptied safely and its contents used or sold

Twin pit not accepted:

  1. People with twin pits pay masons to build septic tanks for them
  2. A mason in a village in Raipur district said that he had replaced over a hundred twin pits with septic tanks
  3. In general, it seems people do not know about, or do not believe in, the advantages of twin pits over septic tanks
  4. Information about twin pits does not seem to have been a major part of Information, Education, Communication (IEC) campaigns
  5. People see twin pits as too small and too quick to fill. They use them sparingly
  6. There is almost universal ignorance of rural people on these points

Swachh Bharat Mission:

  1. There was a major breakthrough a few weeks ago: Led by Parameshwaran Iyer, the secretary in charge of the Swachh Bharat Mission, principal secretaries from almost all states set a splendid example by themselves getting down into pits, digging out fertiliser and being photographed handling it
  2. They overcame the belief that it was polluting, finding the contents of the pits to be dry, crumbly and totally lacking in smell, a fertiliser some compared to coffee powder
  3. They returned to their states armed with the authority of personal experience, and a small jar of the fertiliser to prove the point
  4. If the principal secretaries inspire their staff to empty pits, and if this filters down the hierarchy to field workers, perhaps this could become transformative, and support efforts in changing norms and practices
  5. The transformative shift is from the lose-lose-lose of a septic tank — costly to build, nasty, expensive to empty, and used only partially — to the win-win-win of twin pits — cheaper to build, harmless, easy for owners themselves to dig out, and with a valuable product, giving an incentive for use by everyone all the time, with every deposit an investment in future fertiliser

Note4Students:

The op-ed is important for Prelims and Mains both.

The Mammoth Task Of Skilling India Health, Education & Human Resources

[op-ed snap] Do less, do it better

Context:

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru once said the Indian Civil Service was “Neither Indian, nor Civil, nor a Service”
  2. Sardar Patel said the civil service was the “steel frame of government machinery”
  3. Thankfully, this team of rivals worked together to create a model for non-elected civil servants that served India well when the primary task was nation-building
  4. But now that the task has shifted to poverty reduction, most citizens do not perceive the Indian state as a high-performance organisation

Four basics needed:

  1. High-performance organizations should get four levers right around human capital: Fresher selection, leadership selection, performance management and culture
  2. The State must also recognise that changing culture (accepted and rejected behaviour like punctuality, hard work, corruption, collaboration, etc.) and performance management (the fear of falling and the hope of rising) will take five years, but changing how senior roles are staffed is immediately impactful because personnel is policy
  3. NITI Aayog’s new recruitment rules for senior people (Additional and Joint Secretary rank) are a good template for hiring senior technocrats — a more accurate job description than bureaucrat — but they should be the thin end of a thick wedge to reboot government human capital on these four fronts

Four areas where rebooting of the government Human capital is needed:

  • Fresher hiring for central government officers:
  1.  First, fresher hiring for central government officers in the IAS, IPS, RBI, etc, is probably better than any private sector management trainee programme because of the high quality and quantity of applicants, the UPSC’s institutional integrity, starting compensation, process rigour, etc.
  2. Replicating transparency, process and institutional ability to non-officer hiring (85% of government hiring) and state government hiring (75% of government employees) could rapidly improve legitimacy, competence and trust
  • Avoid Monopoly:
  1. Second, any organisation whose leadership pipeline depends on a line (seniority) or a monopoly (only staffed by insiders) cannot be effective
  2. Such leadership selection needs thoughtful design, pathways to top jobs for young insiders, lateral entry at scale, specialisation opportunities by tenure and training for insiders
  3. In the US, when a new political CEO takes over, 4,000 technocrats resign. In India, 10 people do
  4. Both 4,000 and 10 are extremes and the right number is somewhere in-between
  5. An immediate tweak could be making 25 per cent of all senior appointments through open advertisements and giving insiders a real shot at these jobs when they are 45 years old
  • Culture eats structure for breakfast:
  1. The obvious downside of poor role models, excessive political interference and the lack of accountability in government is poor work culture around punctuality, hard work, integrity, etc.
  2. A more important victim has been collaboration
  3. The government is organised vertically but important horizontal problems like urbanisation and industrialisation seem unsolvable because of the lack of teamwork across departments
  4. A culture of accountability is heavily influenced by structure, the huge overlap in central ministry mandate creates policy orphans and needs reducing the number of ministries in the Central government to 20 (from 50-plus right now) and cutting people with Secretary to Government of India in Delhi rank to 50 (from 200-plus right now)
  5. Any organisation that does not punish its poor performers punishes its high performers
  6. All hierarchies need a pyramid but currently, almost all officers rise to the top rank unless you hit a senior officer or your corruption is caught on video
  7. It is difficult to measure performance in multi-dimensional senior government jobs but 95% being ranked outstanding is mathematically impossible because everybody can’t be above average
  8. Pending a revamp of appraisal systems, all central and state officer cadres should adopt the “colonel threshold” of the army under which, if you are not shortlisted from promotion, you retire at age 50

NITI Aayog rules:

  1. The new recruitment rules of NITI Aayog are thoughtful
  2. Their hiring context is different from large frontline government organisations and tweaking leadership selection will be ineffective without tackling culture and performance management
  3. But these rules are interesting because they create a level playing field for outsiders and insiders and confront issues like cost-to-government, promotion, equivalence, employment contract format, etc.
  4. Most importantly, their five-year contract, extendable by two years, should become standard for all senior positions

Note4Students:

The Indian state aims to be a high-performing organisation but faces the punishing combination of weak human capital, higher competition for talent and an entrenched status quo. Civil service reform is inevitable, unstoppable and overdue.

Sri Lanka’s Constitution – Strides in the Right Direction India & Neighbours

[op-ed snap] Whither human rights in Sri Lanka?

Background:

  1. Sri Lanka’s civil war ended in 2009 and international actors have infused narratives of the war with stories of human rights abuses
  2. Eight years since, it has only become clear how irrelevant current human rights campaigns are to the war-torn people and their struggles
  3. It is the singular focus on international human rights intervention that is killing a once-vibrant local human rights movement in the country

Notes from Geneva:

  1. Sri Lanka was again in the limelight at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) in Geneva this month
  2. The September 2015 resolution, adopted months after regime change in Sri Lanka, signalled a departure from the Council’s earlier antagonistic stand, with Sri Lanka itself co-sponsoring the resolution to address war-time accountability

The new resolution:

  1. The new resolution, on March 23, co-sponsored by the United States, Sri Lanka and other countries, accedes to Sri Lanka’s request for an extension of two more years to fulfil its commitments on accountability
  2. The Tamil nationalist campaign, including that by many Tamil politicians, was predictably about opposing such an extension
  3. In the island’s Sinhala-majority south on the other hand, the debate centred on whether any future justice mechanism for accountability should include foreign judges or not
  4. That Sri Lanka will get its extension, that foreign judges will never be allowed to enter the country and that the U.S. will shield Sri Lanka at the UN, are political realities that escape those firmly pursuing this prolonged engagement in Geneva

What has eight years of international human rights engagement really achieved?

  1. The record is one of reports and counter-reports by the human rights community, the Sri Lankan state and the Tamil nationalist lobby, as well as multiple resolutions in the UNHRC
  2. If only the spotlight on Geneva could be turned towards the ground situation, it will make evident the emptiness of these campaigns
  3. While the state has been rather slow to address the issue of disappearances and military land grabs, these campaigns hardly address the economic deprivation of the missing people’s families and the predicament of the landless
  4. Furthermore, the rights of women, fisherfolk, workers, oppressed castes and the northern Muslims seldom figure in popular human rights narratives

Shift in the movement:

  1. The human rights movement had a different character during its early decades
  2. The Civil Rights Movement emerged after the brutal state repression of the 1971 JVP insurrection, an uprising by rural Sinhala youth, and took up the legal cases of those in custody
  3. Some years later in the context of the Prevention of Terrorism Act of 1979 and a state of Emergency, the Movement for Inter-Racial Justice and Equality, a membership organisation with a significant presence in Jaffna, mobilised people against state repression of Tamil youth during the early years of the armed conflict
  4. Some of the trade unionists who organised the general strike of 1980, which was crushed by the J.R. Jayewardene-led regime, went on to form the Movement for the Defence of Democratic Rights to resist the authoritarian attacks on democracy
  5. With the war in the late 1980s, the University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna) tried creating space for the university community to monitor the various armed actors, including the Sri Lankan military, the Tamil armed movements and the Indian Peace Keeping Force
  6. Their work also addressed the disastrous political developments engulfing the Tamil community
  7. These organisations placed political critique and the mobilisation of people at the heart of their work
  8. However, the targeting of activists and increased political repression by the state and the LTTE, curtailed the democratic space for such work, particularly in the north and the east
  9. The growing international attention on the protracted conflict and increasing donor funding for non-governmental organisations (NGO) in Colombo, brought about the shift of appealing to international forums

After the war ended:

  1. Over the last decade, with the cataclysmic end to the war and the intransigent authoritarianism of the Mahinda Rajapaksa-led regime, human rights engagement backed by powerful western interests deviated the broad set of rights and justice concerns onto war crimes investigation in Geneva
  2. In effect, the international human rights community, national NGOs and the Tamil nationalist lobby, all placed their bets on internationalisation, without considering the political space that was opening after the war

War-time accountability:

  1. In this context, the deteriorating rural economy and the political marginalisation of the war-torn people continues even as year after year they are asked to await the verdict of human rights gods
  2. Indeed, Geneva has become a convenient cover for the state’s failings, the Tamil nationalists’ hollow politics and the international donors’ questionable agendas
  3. Together, these actors have made a real mess of post-war reconstruction

Sri Lankan war crimes horrific: U.N. report:

  1. The media in Sri Lanka dramatises the proceedings in Geneva, as if Sri Lanka is at the centre of the world
  2. The geopolitical changes with the crisis in Syria, the populist racism of the Trump Presidency and anti-immigrant xenophobia in Europe are rarely considered
  3. Human rights work has increasingly become about the perverse parading of victims and their families in front of powerful international actors, and dispatching statements signed by NGOs and individuals to the UN

Engaging the state:

  1. The earlier human rights movement with a left perspective valued international solidarity, for example with Palestine, which necessarily entailed a critique of imperialism
  2. Today’s campaigns have become dependent on western donors
  3. This apolitical variant of human rights activism has no qualms accommodating, or even endorsing, rabid Tamil nationalists who are at the forefront of the campaign for accountability, while remaining silent on the LTTE’s grave crimes

Core historical problems:

  1. The state is at the core of the historical problems, whether it is repressive militarisation, the reinforcement of majoritarian interests or the centralisation of state power in Colombo
  2. But reforming the state requires direct challenges by its citizenry, rather than flight to international forums
  3. That depends on a broad political movement and a domestic process consisting of all the communities, such as the one that threw out the Rajapaksa regime
  4. If the unravelling international order may finally end the internationalisation of Sri Lanka, the tremendous loss of credibility within the country with such internationalisation may make it impossible to revitalise the human rights movement
  5. However, recognising the hollowness of narrow, donor-driven human rights engagement that happily coexists with dangerous nationalist politics, is a necessary starting point for envisioning a broader social justice movement
  6. Such political rethinking and the forging of progressive movements is a priority to address the tremendous challenges facing post-war Sri Lanka

Note4Students:

For mains- the global issue of human rights violation using the case of Sri Lanka.

Agricultural Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc. Agriculture

[pib] Price Stabilization Fund

  1. The Price Stabilization Fund (PSF) was set up in 2014-15 under the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Famers Welfare (DAC&FW)
  2. Aim: to help regulate the price volatility of important agri-horticultural commodities like onion, potatoes and pulses were also added subsequently
  3. The PSF scheme was transferred from DAC&FW to the Department of Consumer Affairs (DOCA) from 2016
  4. The scheme provides for maintaining a strategic buffer of aforementioned commodities for subsequent calibrated release to moderate price volatility and discourage hoarding and unscrupulous speculation
  5. For building such stock, the scheme promotes direct purchase from farmers/farmers’ association at farm gate/Mandi
  6. The PSF is utilized for granting interest free advance of working capital to Central Agencies, State/UT Governments/Agencies to undertake market intervention operations
  7. Apart from domestic procurement from farmers/wholesale mandis, import may also be undertaken with support from the Fund

Note4Students:

Prelims tit-bit.

PIB
Forest Policy of India Conservation & Mitigation

[pib] Fodder Cultivation on Forest Land

  1. NAP: The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change is implementing centrally sponsored scheme National Afforestation Programme (NAP) for eco-restoration of degraded forests in the country through people’s participation
  2. This is in consonance with The National Forest Policy 1988 which envisages taking afforestation programme with particular emphasis on fodder Development
  3. The scheme is implemented through the State Forest Development Agency (SFDA) at the state level, Forest Development Agency (FDA) at the forest division level and the Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at the village level
  4. The scheme provides various models for eco-restoration, one of them being Pasture Development/Silvipasture, which aims for improvement of grasslands and enhancing the fodder availability
  5. Further, the National Mission for a Green India (GIM) is a recent initiative by the Ministry under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
  6. Aim: Protecting and enhancing India’s forest cover to counter the perils of climate change
  7. The Mission supports the restoration of grasslands and pastures, Agro-forestry and Social Forestry
  8. However there is no specific suggestion for earmarking of area for growing grass and fodder under the above schemes

Note4students:

Important for prelims.

PIB
Innovation in Sciences and Technology Explorations in S&T

World’s first nanocar race to take place next month

  1. An international molecule-car race is being organised by the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France
  2. It is world’s first nanocar race where tiny molecular machines will compete against each other over a minuscule racecourse made of gold atoms
  3. The vehicles, which consist of a few hundred atoms, will be powered by minute electrical pulses during the 36 hours of the race, in which they must navigate a racecourse made of gold atoms, measuring a maximum of a 100 nanometres in length

Note4students:

Prelims trivia. Revise basics of nano-technology.

Corruption And The Idea Of Lokpal Governance

CVC recommendations against govt officials non-binding on departments

  1. Source: An order by Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT)
  2. Vigilance clearance for senior government officers has been relaxed by the central government
  3. The relaxation, which overrides an earlier order of the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), however, will not be applicable to officers of banks and state-run organisations
  4. What does the new order mean: Suppose, there is a complaint against a senior govt employee for taking a bribe to clear a project. Earlier, the case would be referred to the CVC for inquiry. Once the CVC had given its recommendation either way, the department concerned was supposed to accept it in toto
  5. Under the new rules issued by the DoPT, the dept will instead have the prerogative to decide whether to accept the recommendation from the CVC or not
  6. It will only need to keep the UPSC, which recruits senior govt employees, in the loop about the action it proposes to take
  7. So, the decision to go ahead with lower level of punishment or penalty than recommended by the CVC will be the remit of the dept, and no further intimation needs to be made to the CVC
  8. Background: In repeated meetings with the PM, top officials have pointed out that decision making has become difficult within the govt as officers, because of the scare of punishment, often refuse to sign on files
  9. They have pointed out that section 13(d)(iii) of the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 puts the onus on govt employees to prove they have not made a decision favouring any particular company or industrial group
  10. A select committee of Parliament was tasked with the work of finding a satisfactory alternative of the current Act, in the middle of 2016
  11. It has not been able to agree on the scope of any amendment that will satisfy the demands of keeping govt administration free of corruption and yet provide reasonable safeguards for government employees to do their jobs
  12. Significance: The change has been made when Parliament is debating the need to relax a key provision in the Prevention of Corruption Act to offer a larger space to public servants for making decisions
  13. The Act was last amended in 1988
  14. Another order: All departments need to ensure that complaints against government employees are normally disposed of within six months

Note4students:

Can be quoted in mains answer on issue of corruption or issue related to PCA- need of approval before prosecution of govt officers. Points 4-7 need to be memorised, especially since the DoPT has many other rules. E.g. these rules may not be applicable to IAS, IRS etc or other rules may come in conflict and lead to different outcomes.

The important point here is the continuing dilemma of more oversight (leading to reduced corruption) vs independence to take decisions (necessary for resolving problems quickly) as highlighted in points 8-11.

Geographic phenomenon : Key Concepts and Issues Climate Change

Cyclone Debbie makes landfall in Australia

  1. News: Tropical Cyclone Debbie made landfall across the coast of northeast Australia, packing strong winds with gusts
  2. The storm is lashing the Queensland coast with torrential rain, bringing about a significant flooding risk
  3. The Category 4 cyclone is the equivalent of a Category 3 hurricane and is very slow-moving

Note4students:

Reminder to revise cyclones from physical geography book. Also note the name and location of the landfall. It might become a prelims titbit.

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