Daily Current Affairs for IAS & UPSC Preparation

All current affairs available date-wise and month-wise. Watchout for Back2basics and Notes4students.

July 2017
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Low Priority News Items For UPSC, IAS Exam and Why

[27 July 2017] Low priority news items of the day

The [Low priority news items of the day] series of posts are aimed at increasing transparency wrt. mature aspirants and educating young aspirants (on what to leave/ assign lower priority and why).

Low priority news items of the day:

No transgenders in military: Trump

The United States will not “accept or allow” transgender individuals in the military, President Donald Trump declared on Wednesday, reversing a decision taken by the Barack Obama administration last year.

The article is not important because it is not related to India. But still it can be shown as an example of issues related to LGBT community.


‘India-Israel ties can affect Al Aqsa conflict’

India’s friendly ties with Israel could ‘interfere’ with the ongoing Israel-Palestinians conflict over the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, said the envoy of Palestine on Wednesday.

No Important information is given in the article, from the UPSC point of view


Planet of machines

The prognosis that artificially-intelligent (AI) machines will get to a point where humanity could, in theory, be made redundant

Op-Ed is very technical and is on a hypothetical topic


The war within

It’s barely five months before Gujarat goes for crucial Assembly polls. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the ruling party since 1998, is already in the thick of things with Prime Minister Narendra Modi visiting the State once a month and party national president Amit Shah holding region-wise conventions of party workers. Notwithstanding anti-incumbency of almost two decades, the party has set itself an ambitious target of winning 150 out of 182 Assembly seats to break the Congress record of 149 seats way back in 1985.

A political Op-Ed, talking about the faulty strategy of Congress against BJP. Not important for UPSC


PS: Have suggestions to help improve our news selection? Please drop in a mail to hello@civilsdaily.com and let us know.

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Right To Privacy In India Constitution

Privacy is a fundamental right with qualifications, Centre tells apex court


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, following thing are important:

Prelims level: Read the attached story

Mains level: Right to privacy is a hot topic these days. We should wait for the final judgement on the issue. But understanding government stand is a must.


Union Government stand on the issue

  1. Government told the SC that right to privacy is a fundamental right but it is a “wholly qualified right”
  2. Government stand means ‘right to privacy’ could be subject to reasonable restrictions


  1. This is contrary to the government’s earlier stand that citizens cannot invoke privacy as a fundamental right as the Constitution does not provide for it

Does this covers the issue related to Aadhar?

  1. Government also made it clear that the submission was not intended to cover the challenge to Aadhaar
  2. It means that those challenging it cannot claim that it violates right to privacy

[Announcement] Economic Survey 2017 released


We believe in providing you with resources which have actual worth and not the ones which have been hyped a lot but have a minimal Return on Investment (ROI).

We analysed Economic Survey in detail and found that there are overlaps from it in Prelims and a possibility of few questions in Mains too.

So, we have this hand curated document for you all in order to provide all necessary info from UPSC perspective.

We have made it quite easy for you to comprehend all major issues discussed in the survey via infographics.

Apart from that, Note4Students have been added at various places in order to tell you more about some important terms mentioned in the survey.

The points can come in handy for Mains answers (and will definitely fetch you more marks) + schemes, basic terms etc. will add to your Prelims preparation.

It is available at a price of just Rs. 29 here- http://bit.ly/cd_ecosrv

For our Flagship, Advanced and CA test series subscribers, it’s FREE. (You can get it from documents section of test portal)

A must read for both Pre + Mains.


Labour and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc. Industries

Union Cabinet clears minimum wage code bill

Image result for minimum wage

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Development and employment

Prelims level: Minimum wage code bill

Mains level: Labour reforms



  • The Union Cabinet approved the new wage code bill which will ensure a minimum wage across all sectors by integrating four labour related laws.

The new wage code

  1. The Labour Code on Wages Bill will consolidate the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; the Payment of Wages Act, 1936; the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965; and the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
  2. The bill seeks to empower the Centre to set a minimum wage across all sectors in the country and states will have to maintain that.
  3. However, states will be able to provide for higher minimum wage in their jurisdiction than fixed by the central government
  4. The new minimum wage norms would be applicable for all workers irrespective of their pay.
  5. At present, the minimum wages fixed by the Centre and states are applicable to workers getting up to Rs 18,000 pay monthly.
  6. This would ensure a universal minimum wage for all industries and workers, including those getting monthly pay higher than Rs 18,000

Second National Commission on Labour

  1. It has recommended that the existing labour laws should be broadly grouped into four or five labour codes on functional basis.
  2. Accordingly, ministry has taken steps for drafting four Labour Codes on — Wages; Industrial Relations; Social Security & Welfare and Safety and Working Conditions, respectively.
  3. It will be done by simplifying, amalgamating and rationalising the relevant provisions of the existing central labour laws.



[pib] National Tourism Policy


The newscard has information on National Tourism Policy. Some takeaways are:

Prelims Level: Make note for your Prelims

Mains Level: not much important

When: 2002

Salient features of the new draft National Tourism Policy:

  1. Focus of the Policy on employment generation and community participation in tourism development.
  2. Stress on development of tourism in a sustainable and responsible manner.
  3. The Policy enshrines the vision of developing and positioning India as a “MUST EXPERIENCE” and “MUST RE-VISIT” Destination for global travellers, whilst encouraging Indians to explore their own country.
  4. Development and promotion of varied tourism products including the rich Culture and Heritage of the country, as well as niche products such as Medical &Wellness, Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE), Adventure, Wildlife, etc.
  5. Development of core infrastructure (airways, railways, roadways, waterways, etc.) as well as Tourism Infrastructure.
  6. Developing quality human resources in the tourism and hospitality sectors across the spectrum of vocational to professional skills development and opportunity creation.
  7. Creating an enabling environment for investment in tourism and tourism-related infrastructure.
  8. Emphasis on technology enabled development in tourism.
  9. Focus on domestic tourism as a major driver of tourism growth.
  10. Focus on promotions in established source markets and potential markets, which are contributing significantly to global tourist traffic, with targeted and country specific campaigns.
  11. Emphasis on Tourism as the fulcrum of multi-sectoral activities and dovetailing of activities of the Ministry with important/flagship schemes of the Government of India.
Goods and Services Tax (GST) Finance and Banking

Post-GST, heavy sacks and small change

Related image

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Prelims level: GST

Mains level: GST impact on different sectors



  • Article discusses the negative impact of GST in environment.

How GST affects environment?

  • Goods and Services Tax (GST) is making adverse consequences for the environment.
  • With the tax rate on recycled plastic shooting up from 5.5% to 18% post-GST, ragpicking as a livelihood is turning unviable.
  • After GST came in, the 18% tax on waste plastic has sparked a downward spiral in prices in the recycling markets.
  • Ragpickers encounter a steep fall in earnings as recyclers protect margins, pay less for plastic waste.
  • Plastic recyclers, faced with the new tax, are protecting their margins by slashing prices at which they buy from thousands of waste managers and ragpickers.
  • As an informal sector, not many have Taxpayer Identification Numbers. Taxes paid by the recyclers are recovered from them
  • Sudden introduction of confusing taxes” has resulted in reduced purchases of waste
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Regional Groupings

RCEP: Boost for India on easier visa norms

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, following thing are important:

Prelims level: Read the attached story

Mains level: RCEP is an important FTA. Any development related to it is important for Mains.


Easier Visa Norms

  1. India is pushing for easier norms on movement of professionals for short-term work in 16 Asia-Pacific nations, under the RCEP
  2. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a proposed FTA
  3. The RCEP technical level talks are currently going on in Hyderabad

Possible support from ASEAN countries

  1. A few ASEAN countries are also supporting India’s proposal for an RCEP Travel Card
  2. The Travel Card will facilitate visa-free multiple short-term entry across the RCEP region for business and tourism purposes

Concerns of RCEP Members

  1. According to some members, Travel card would lead to migration of professionals from India and loss of jobs for locals
  2. But India has been saying that its demands on temporary movement of professionals and skilled workers should not be confused with permanent movement (or immigration)
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Regional Groupings

India pressed to open up procurement

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, following thing are important:

Prelims level: Read the attached story

Mains level: Ongoing meet of RCEP members at Hyderabad makes this issue more important for Mains


More RCEP nations seek commitments on market access

  1. Members of the RCEP wants India to open up its more than $300 billion-worth public procurement market
  2. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a proposed mega Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
  3. Many countries pushing for binding commitments to mutually liberalise government procurement markets, including themselves and India involved in the mega-FTA talks

What is Public/government procurement?

  1. It refers to the process by which government (at the Central, State and local levels), its agencies/departments and State-owned enterprises procure goods and/or services
  2. Only for their own use, and not for sale/resale commercially
  3. India is not a signatory to the Government Procurement Agreement within the WTO framework
  4. Why: because it wants to retain its policy space to meet its development needs through public procurement process

Other developments on the issue

  1. Currently, 19th round of the RCEP Trade Negotiating Committee meeting at the technical level is going on at the Hyderabad
  2. Here, the 16 countries agreed to constitute a Working Group on government procurement to take forward negotiations on the topic and include it as a separate chapter in the final agreement



Foreign Policy Watch: India-Sri Lanka India & Neighbours

[op-ed snap] Thirty years of soul-searching — the lasting legacy of 1987

Image result for India-Sri Lanka Accord 1987

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: IR | India and its neighborhood- relations.

Op-ed discusses details about India-Sri Lanka Accord 1987, its significance and LTTE issue etc. After reading this op-ed you will be able to understand historical reasons why Sri Lanka is still not a multi-ethnic and multicultural society.

Once you are done reading this op-ed, you will be able to fully attempt the below.

“The most significant contribution of the much-maligned Indo-Sri Lanka Accord has been the restructuring of the island nation’s postcolonial state” Discuss?

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: India-Sri Lanka relations



  1. It has been thirty years since President J.R. Jayewardene of Sri Lanka and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of India signed the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord in July 1987.
  2. Author discusses the change in Sri Lanka’s politics since the advent of the accord.

Indo-Sri Lanka Accord importance?

  1. The most important political change in Sri Lanka, since 1987 has been the total military defeat and demise of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
  2. The accord was one of the early attempts to bring Sri Lanka’s ethnic civil war to an end by means of a political-constitutional solution.

Why India took initiative?

  1. Rajiv Gandhi thought that a political solution in Sri Lanka on India’s initiative would resolve the island nation’s ethnic conflict.
  2. It also ensure a role for India in shaping the political trajectories of a post-war Sri Lanka.
  3. This thinking was subtly reflected in the accord’s clauses as well as annexures.

What are the main clauses?

  1. Sri Lanka is a multi-ethnic and multicultural society.
  2. Tamil demand for secession is not politically tenable, though understandable.
  3. Regional autonomy is the best alternative both to a unitary state and separation
  4. Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict can be best managed by political means, grounded in the acknowledgement that the ethnic minorities have legitimate political and other grievances and aspirations.

 Objectives of the accord?

  1. To end Sri Lanka’s ethnic war by persuading the Tamil militant groups to lay down their arms and then join the so-called political mainstream.
  2. To alter the constitutional and structural framework and offer regional autonomy to the minority Tamil community through devolution of powers.
  3. The two objectives have been met with only partial success.


  1. The Tamil militant groups, except LTTE, agreed to follow the political path opened up for them.
  2. The LTTE rejected the accord, and returned to war not only with the Sri Lankan state, but also with the Indian state.
  3. Within four months of the accord’s signing, India became a direct party to the war.


  1. The war went on till May 2009 when the government of President Mahinda Rajapaksa achieved a war victory by defeating the LTTE.
  2. And that happened, with the support of many parties — like India, China, Russia, Pakistan, Japan, EU, U.S. and the UN.
  3. But Mr. Rajapaksa claimed personal credit for achieving ‘the first success’ in the global war against terrorism

What’s next? Constitutional amendment.

  1. The second objective of the accord required a constitutional amendment.
  2. The 13th Amendment to Sri Lanka’s 1978 Constitution passed in November 1987 followed the Indian constitutional model of power-sharing, created a system of Provincial Councils in Sri Lanka’s nine Provinces.
  3. Though rejected by the LTTE as an inadequate solution to the Tamil national question, the 13th Amendment at least restructured, de jure, Sri Lanka’s postcolonial state, which had remained unreformable in the direction of pluralism and multiethnicity.

 What has happened to Sri Lanka’s Provincial Council system since November 1987?

  1. In the merged ‘North Eastern Province’, the Eelam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF), the most leftist among Tamil militant groups, formed a coalition after winning the first Provincial Council election.
  2. The despair led the EPRLF to declare a unilateral declaration of independence and its members then retreated to India for political asylum.
  3. Provincial Councils continued in the Sinhalese-majority Provinces, seven in all, where there was no demand for devolution.
  4. Caught up in a powerful ideological paradigm of a centralised unitary state, the entire system of Provincial Councils found new political reasons for their existence other than regional autonomy.

Changes in Councils?

  1. The Councils, contrary to the original intention of the law, became institutional extensions of the Central government and the ruling party in Colombo.
  2. They evolved into institutions through which political corruption and patronage politics got decentralised and democratised

Politics after 1987

  1. The ethnic civil war has ended, and there is no armed insurgency threatening the state.
  2. Insurgency led by the Janathā Vimukthi Peramuṇa (JVP) too was defeated and JVP has re-invented itself as an effective parliamentary party.
  3. Attempts at re-democratisation have been made and have partially succeeded.
  4. A new generation of political leadership has emerged with conflicting visions for the future of Sri Lanka.

Prevailing issue?

  • It is the resistance to reforming the state, and the state’s failure to become truly pluralistic and multi-ethnic.
  • Thirty years since the accord, Sri Lanka is fast losing momentum to bring constitutional reform.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc. Health

[op-ed snap] Address this blockage

Image result for stents in heart

Image source


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Op-ed discusses details recent capping of stent price by National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority and its implications on various sectors.

Once you are done reading this op-ed, you will be able to fully attempt the below.

Discuss the implications of capping the price of medical stents on various sectors? What policy should government follow in order to support indigenous medical device development in India?

Prelims level: National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority

Mains level: Research and developments of medical equipments in India and its challenges



  • In February, the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority slashed prices of stents by up to 85 per cent
  • Thousands of patients who couldn’t afford stents can now afford the devices at a fraction of the cost

What are Stents?

  • Stents are tiny metal tubes coated with medication, which are inserted into clogged arteries to keep them flowing well.

When it is used?

  • Emergency angioplasty is the treatment of choice during an acute heart attack, wherein the clot is crushed with a balloon and a stent is placed.
  • It improves the chance of the patient surviving by almost 30 per cent when compared to clot dissolving medication (thrombolysis).
  • However, in India, emergency angioplasty was carried out in less than 10 per cent of patients because of the cost involved in the procedure and the lack of access to stents.

Capping the prices- unintended ramifications on different sectors

Health sector

  1. Preference for stenting even in cases when it is not the best treatment and disturbing increase in multi-vessel stenting.
  2. With cheaper stents and a fall in procedure costs, many more patients are opting for angioplasty.
  3. Patients with multiple blocks in all three vessels, open heart surgery is a better than the use of multiple stents. However, with lower stent prices, patients often choose multi-vessel angioplasty as it is cheaper than open heart surgery
  4. Even the latest drug-eluting stents get clogged in about 5 per cent of cases.
  5. With the increasing use of the tiny metal tubes, the chances of a stent blocking with consequent damage to the heart muscle will only increase.

Indigenous development of stents

  1. Stent manufacturers typically spend millions of dollars on research before they can make the device and commercialise it.
  2. Abruptly reducing stent prices will have adverse effects on the development of improved stents.
  3. International companies may be able to offset their losses with profits in other markets, and from profits from other products
  4. Even before the price control move was instituted, only 40 per cent of the stents used in the country were indigenously manufactured; the rest were imported.
  5. With prices of imported stents and Indian stents now being the same, doctors and patients could prefer the imported devices
  6. All these will have a bearing on their capacity to do quality research.
  7. Lack of government funding for clinical research in India only aggravates the issue.


  1. Lack of indigenous research and development will make the country dependent on imported stents
  2. Multinational companies may choose not to release their latest products in India because of the country’s price control regime
  3. Such an alarming scenario might pertain not only to stent technology but also to research and marketing of other implantable devices.
  4. It end up with a situation where hospitals in the country would have older generation stents.
  5. Patients hoping to have advanced stents may have to travel abroad

Medical tourism sector

  1. It will become apparent that Indian hospitals do not have the latest generation stents.
  2. With time, paradoxically, patients who were the intended benefactors of this price control measure may actually turn out to be losers.

Way forward

  1. Encourage and support Indian stent manufacturers and medical device research so that we do no need to depend on imported stents.
  2. All aspects involving medical device development (clinical research, animal testing, and human trials) must be fast-tracked and should be as transparent as possible.
  3. There must be a system to make sure that the latest medical devices, including stents, are priced differently.
  4. Once such a level of competency is achieved, India could actually export stents, making “Make in India” viable for medical devices.


Low Priority News Items For UPSC, IAS Exam and Why

[26 July 2017] Low priority news items of the day

The [Low priority news items of the day] series of posts are aimed at increasing transparency wrt. mature aspirants and educating young aspirants (on what to leave/ assign lower priority and why).

Low priority news items of the day:

Centre plans Rs. 7 lakh crore for highways

The Centre will invest about Rs. 7 lakh crore in developing national highways in the next five years, the Road Transport and Highways Ministry said in a statement.

What is important in this news is covered here in this snippet. No need to go full monty on the original news.


Transfer unclaimed accruals to fund: IRDA

Insurance companies can no longer retain unclaimed amounts of policyholders if those accruals are more than 10 years old. Such sums need to be, instead, transferred to the Senior Citizens’ Welfare Fund (SCWF) of the Centre. The direction from the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India has come in the backdrop of the amendment made in April to the Senior Citizens’ Welfare Fund Rules. The amendment expanded the purview beyond the unclaimed amounts in small savings and other saving schemes of the Centre, PPF and EPF.

What is important in this news is covered here in this snippet. No need to go full monty on the original news.


Crisis in Maldives worsens

Maldivian troops blockaded Parliament and clashed with Opposition leaders for a second day, witnesses said on Tuesday.

This article is not related to India, but yet it could be important for UPSC if any important information were given in it. Because Maldives is a close neighbor of India, and every problem or hostility in Indian neighbors effects Indian Foreign policy.


In the age of data

Without strong data protection laws, privacy as a right will be of little value

The topic of the Op-Ed is important but it is little bit more technical. Also, there is no significance of perceptions on this issue(as given in the article), as SC is going to give its judgement very soon. Then, we can expect a good Op-Ed on the issue.


PS: Have suggestions to help improve our news selection? Please drop in a mail to hello@civilsdaily.com and let us know.

PPS: Like what you read? Encourage the editorial team by giving 5* at our android page. Any comment, short or long brings a big smile to our content writers 🙂

Bankruptcy code

[op-ed snap] A greater market role in bankruptcy process

Image result for bankruptcy and insolvency

Image Source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Growth

Op-ed discusses details about India’s declining private investments, its reasons and the flaws in the current Bankruptcy code. It suggests a new method to solve insolvency problem and to revive India’s growth.

Once you are done reading this op-ed, you will be able to fully attempt the below.

Do you think the current Bankruptcy code is enough to address the issues faced by business in India? Suggest measures to improve ranking in World Bank’s Doing Business Index.

Prelims level: World Bank’s Doing Business Index, National Company Law Tribunal, Bankruptcy and insolvency code.

Mains level: Flaws and challenges in bankruptcy and insolvency code.



  1. Major challenges for the Narendra Modi government in the next two years is the revival of private investment in the country.
  2. Failure on this count could hurt employment generation, exacerbate economic inequality and threaten social unrest.

An International Monetary Fund paper noted that in India, rise in gross fixed capital formation over the last five years averaged only 3.5%, compared to 12% per year over the decade ending 2011-12.


  1. Rise in financial leverage of firms.
  2. This is especially true for firms whose earnings are insufficient to service their debt.
  3. Higher leverage not only cripples the ability of firms to undertake new investments, but also impedes the completion of ongoing projects.
  4. As a result, these firms continue to suffer from low productivity.
  5. National Company Law Tribunal would be tasked with resolving as many as 25,000 insolvency cases and it may take more than seven years for the NCLT to clear these many cases.


  • A strong exit mechanism would ensure an efficient reallocation of both capital and labour to productive businesses, thereby contributing to higher output.
  • India’s new bankruptcy law, promulgated last year could address this issue.

Bankruptcy and insolvency code,2016

  • It is similar to the UK’s administration system and Singapore’s judicial management system.
  • This new law provides for appointing an insolvency professional (IP) to conduct the process.
  • The management of the firm is transferred to the IP, who is tasked with preparing and proposing the reorganization plan.
  • This plan is then voted on by the committee of creditors (CoC).


  • Research has shown that this approach leads to higher bankruptcy costs.
  • It also leaves too much discretion in the hands of the IP who, in India’s case, is likely to have much less knowledge and experience in this domain.
  • Economists said that those countries with underdeveloped capital markets and inefficient judicial systems, the contemporary bankruptcy mechanisms of the West, such as the US’ Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code or UK’s administration system, were ill-suited to them.

What’s the way out?

  • They proposed a radical, market-friendly approach to the resolution of the bankruptcy process.
  • This approach was originally intended to help the developing countries of Eastern Europe, which had just witnessed the demise of socialism.

What is the new method to solve insolvency problem?

  1. It would be one that encourages decentralization, reduces the role of courts or insolvency professionals, and allows for a greater role for the markets.
  2. According to this proposal, the entire debt of the distressed firm would be converted into one common security called “Reorganisation Rights” (RR).
  3. Then, two auctions would be held. An “inside” auction would allow the claimants to purchase RRs at a preferential price, one that would reflect the seniority of the claims.
  4. Subsequently, a “public” auction would allow external investors to make cash bids for these RRs.
  5. These external bids in public auctions would allow claimants, including those who were unable to participate in the inside auction owing to financial constraints, to be repaid in cash.
  6. A reasonable reserve price would be set high enough so as to avert the risk of RRs being acquired at throwaway prices.
  7. Once the RRs are acquired, the new RR holders would then vote on the reorganization plan and decide the future course of the firm.


  1. It is a robust, market-friendly approach such as this would help reduce the economic and financial costs of bankruptcy.
  2. In this system, the courts would only have a supervisory role.
  3. This would do away with the need to establish specialized bankruptcy courts, insolvency professional agencies, or even experts for operating the firm.
  4. It would also remove the scope for discretionary decisions by IPs.
  5. Since the ownership of the firm is homogenized, owners would take all decisions through a vote.

World Bank’s Doing Business Index 2017 

  1. India takes on an average 4.3 years to resolve insolvency—about two years more than the average for South Asia.
  2. The recovery rate for secured creditors is 26 cents to a dollar. This is 64% lower than the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) average.
  3. The rate for junior claimants would be even worse.

How India can improve its ranking?

  1. It is not enough to simply have a bankruptcy code in place. The code must be robust, decentralized, less costly, inclusive and speedy.
  2. This would help businesses exit sooner and capital to be redeployed faster to productive firms, thereby improving economic output and employment.


Foreign Policy Watch: India-China India & Neighbours

[op-ed snap] The crossroads at the Doklam plateau

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: IR | India and its neighborhood- relations.

Q.) “India must calibrate both its message and military moves to keep Bhutan on track with the special bilateral ties.” Explain the importance of this statement.

From UPSC perspective, following thing are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: Important article on Indo-Bhutanese relations



  1. The article is about the Indo-Bhutanese relationship amid the current stand off between Indian and Chinese Army

Historical overview

  1. Since 1960, 1,500 Km of roads have been built by India across Bhutan’s most difficult mountains and passes
  2. These roads built and maintained by the Indian Border Roads Organisation (BRO) under Project Dantak

Past discussions on Doklam Plateau

  1. The Doklam plateau is an area that China and Bhutan have long discussed(over 24 rounds of negotiations that began in 1984)
  2. Chinese also offered a “package deal” to Bhutan, under which the Chinese agreed to renounce their claim over the 495-sq.-km disputed land
  3. In exchange for a smaller tract of disputed land measuring 269 sq. km, the Doklam plateau
  4. But India was able to convince Bhutan to defer a decision

Indian Government must give importance to Bhutan’s sovereignty 

  1. India should avoid any irresponsible comment on Bhutan
  2. Why: because it matter to Bhutanese people

India’s Concerns

  1. India must also be aware that other neighbours are watching the Doklam stand-off closely
  2. Bhutan is also the only country in the region that joined India in its boycott of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s marquee project, the Belt and Road Initiative
  3. That’s why, India relations with Bhutan has became more important
Foreign Policy Watch: India-Middle East India Beyond its Neighbours

India rejects OIC move on vigilantism

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, following thing are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the OIC

Mains level: This reaction against the OIC resolution shows India’s seriousness towards its sovereignty


Strong Rejection

  1. India on has strongly rejected the resolutions of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
  2. The resolution had expressed concern about the recent attacks on people by cow-vigilante groups

Statement from Indian Government

  1. Government has stated that the resolutions adopted at the Organisation’s latest foreign ministers’ meeting were “factually incorrect”


Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

  1. Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.6 billion as of 2008
  2. The organisation states that it is “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and works to “safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony”
  3. The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union
  4. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French
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