Daily Current Affairs for IAS & UPSC Preparation

All current affairs available date-wise and month-wise. Watchout for Back2basics and Notes4students.

March 2017
« Feb    

Diseases and Vaccines – bird flu, swine flu, ebola etc

New vaccine against rotavirus could curb child deaths

  1. A new vaccine that is cheap to make and does not require refrigeration has shown promise in preventing rotavirus
  2. The vaccine, called BRV-PV, is manufactured by the Serum Institute of India
  3. A trial in Niger found that the new vaccine was almost 67% effective in preventing gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus
  4. WHO: More than 500,000 children die each year from dehydration and complications of rotavirus, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa
  5. There are already two vaccines on the market against rotavirus, but they require refrigeration and can be costly
  6. This trial brings a vaccine which is adapted to African settings to those who need it most
  7. The vaccine has been licensed in India
  8. It is awaiting prequalification by the World Health Organization before it can be purchased by the United Nations and government agencies


Important for prelims. Also know about Rotavirus and vaccination programme in India (click here).

NPA Crisis Finance and Banking

Two ARCs seek RBI nod for priority funding for cases under bankruptcy law

  1. News: Some asset reconstruction companies (ARCs) have sought permission from RBI to allow priority funding for cases under the insolvency and bankruptcy procedures
  2. Current guidelines: ARCs are not allowed to fund any case which is not in their portfolio
  3. If RBI approves this demand, we can look at more innovative ways to deploy our capital in turnround efforts
  4. Priority funding: Involves extending credit to a company on the promise that the lender will be given higher priority during the payout phase, once the turnround is effected or the company is liquidated
  5. A priority funding structure could prove to be a boon for companies that are not able to close a bad loan sale due to pricing issues


Important for prelims. Also know what are asset reconstruction companies (click here).

Global warming- Causes & Effects Climate Change

More extreme weather coming after record 2016 heat: WMO

  1. Source: The World Meteorological Organization
  2. Unusually warm weather in the Arctic is helping shift weather patterns this year from North America to the Middle East, after global warming shattered records in 2016
  3. Rising ocean temperatures that are melting polar ice sheets, killing marine life and flooding coastal communities may have increased more than previously reported last year
  4. Average sea-surface temperatures hit their highest levels ever last year, and overall temperatures over sea and land were 1.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period
  5. At least three times this winter, the Arctic has experienced the polar equivalent of a heat wave with Atlantic storms driving warm, moist air
  6. The global warming trend: It is continuing into 2017
  7. In the US, 11,743 warm temperature records were broken or tied in February, according to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Important for prelims. Can also be quoted in essay or answer on environment/ climate change.

International Space Agencies – Missions and Discoveries Explorations in S&T

Nasa sending next-generation atomic clock for deep space missions

  1. NASA will send its next-generation atomic clock into space later this year
  2. Advantages: It will be a key advance for safely navigating future human exploration of the solar system
  3. Timekeeping plays a critical role in spacecraft navigation and will be especially important for future deep space missions
  4. The clock will be smaller, lighter with magnitudes more precise than any atomic clock flown in space before
  5. This will be a key advance for safely navigating future human exploration of the solar system by providing astronauts with their position and velocity when they need it
  6. It will lighten the load on the antennas in NASA’s Deep Space Network, allowing more spacecraft to be tracked with a single antenna
  7. It would also improve the precision and quantity of the radio data used by scientists for determining a planet’s gravity field and probing its atmosphere


Important for prelims. See b2b.


The Deep Space Atomic Clock

  1. Developed by: NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California
  2. Most spacecraft are tracked using two-way methods: the ground-based antenna ‘pings’ the spacecraft and waits for the signal to return
  3. By measuring how long the signal takes to travel, the distance to the spacecraft can be calculated
  4. A navigation team then processes this information to determine the spacecraft’s flight path and determine if any course corrections are required
  5. The clock enables one-way tracking, where the spacecraft does not need to send the signal back to Earth
  6. The tracking measurements could be taken onboard and processed with a spacecraft-based navigation system to determine the path and whether any manoeuvres are needed to stay on course
Foreign Policy Watch: India – EU India Beyond its Neighbours

European FTA pushes for tougher IPR rules under ongoing trade talks with India

  1. The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) has insisted on stricter provisions of intellectual property rights (IPR) under the ongoing negotiations for a Trade & Economic Partnership Agreement (TEPA) with India
  2. Switzerland: Proposed that India agree to broader patentable principles, particularly on biologic products
  3. Also adopt exclusive rights in data used to support the registration of new drugs and vaccines; and eliminate its requirements for local manufacturing of patented inventions
  4. Why patent protection? Solid and reliable patent protection is not only important for any innovative pharmaceutical company, but just as much for other knowledge-based and innovative industries especially biotechnology which produces expensive cancer drugs
  5. CL: It also argued against granting compulsory licensing in case a drug is not produced in India but imported into the country
  6. It also seeks to protect the rights of pharma companies to keep patents by making minor changes in the formulation of drugs—known as evergreening—through data exclusivity
  7. Medicines Sans Frontiers (criticism of the proposals): The harmful provisions the Swiss government is pushing for, which go beyond what’s required under internationally-agreed law, will further create exclusive rights for profiteering and serve to undermine what remains of generic competition in India
  8. EFTA: Includes Switzerland, Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein
  9. Background: The free trade negotiations started in October 2008, and 13 rounds had been held until November 2013
  10. Chief negotiators decided to resume negotiations in 2016 after taking stock of their status, and a 14th round was held in October
  11. During this 15th round in January, experts from both sides held targeted discussions on outstanding issues regarding trade in goods and services, rules of origin and intellectual property rights, while heads of delegations reviewed the state of play of all other topics under discussion
  12. Fact check: Indian exports to EFTA region grew 13.7% to $1.5 billion in 2015-16 while imports contracted by 14% to $19.9 billion during the same period


The negotiations issue is important for mains. Know about the name of agreement, the associated group, basics on IPRs- very important for prelims (click here).

8 tribunals face axe amid downsizing

  1. The Centre has decided to wind up eight tribunals
  2. These currently deal exclusively with disputes pertaining to employees’ provident fund or EPF, Competition law, Airports’ economic regulation,
  3. Information Technology law, National highways, railways, copyrights and foreign exchange
  4. The major tribunals to be relegated to history include:
    • the Competition Appellate Tribunal, whose work will now be transferred to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal
    • the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority Appellate Tribunal (AERAAT) and the Cyber Appellate Tribunal — whose functions will now be discharged by the Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT)
    • The EPF Appellate Tribunal’s remit would be transferred to the Industrial Tribunal that examines matters under the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947
    • Cases under the Foreign Exchange Management Act of 1999 would be transferred from the dedicated tribunal for foreign exchange matters to the Appellate Tribunal constituted under the Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act of 1976
  5. Rationale unclear: The rationale behind replacing certain tribunals is unclear. For example, the TDSAT may not have the expertise to adjudicate matters relating to pricing of airport services
  6. There would be a conflict of interest if the government were to be a litigant before a tribunal, as well as determine appointment of its members


This is a major instance in the larger issue of tribunals for mains.

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 Finance and Banking

Bankruptcy board spells out ‘eligibility’

  1. News: The first order issued by the recently-established Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) is expected to set in motion a chain of events at many firms, including well-known consultancies that are eyeing the huge market for stressed assets and debt resolution


The news as such is not important from UPSC point of view. However it is a reminder to revise about IBBI and the Bankruptcy law (click on the story – Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016).

Drones to help collect data on rail accidents

  1. In a first, the Railways will deploy drones or unmanned aerial vehicles to capture visuals of accident sites to preserve evidence for inquiry
  2. The move is part of a series of initiatives suggested by Union Railway Minister Suresh Prabu for the safety of train operations
  3. Need: The basic purpose of an accident inquiry is to pinpoint the cause of failure — be it material, technological, staff or others
  4. Unfortunately, rescue and restoration work, which essentially involves railway officials, tend to compromise if not destroy evidence
  5. The inquiry officer who reaches the site much later does not have the benefit of proper information and evidence
  6. Consequently, the whole exercise tends to become ‘avoid-the-blame’ game and most of the time the real cause of accident does not get flagged
  7. Data: The Railways reported 237 accidents in the last two years which claimed the lives of 158 people and left 450 injured
  8. A majority of the accidents were derailments and mishaps at level crossings
  9. Of the 106 train accidents in 2015-16, 92% were due to human error, of which 54% was due to failure of railway staff


Mains- rail safety issue.

China’s Silk Route & OBOR diplomacy India Beyond its Neighbours

[op-ed snap] Way to get back on board


  1. In February 2014, when the Chinese government first brought up with India its plans for the Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative, four months after President Xi Jinping had unveiled the idea in Kazakhstan, it seemed an unworkable, ambitious pipe dream
  2. China would need all the friends and partners it could get to make its plans for a 60-nation network encompassing 4.4 billion people
  3. In the Chinese scheme, India could be a major partner, and maps of the time show the B&R travel east to west right through India

Swerving off the road:

  1. A few months later Russia was enlisted through the $400-billion “Power of Siberia” pipeline
  2. Xi’s friendship at a time when the West had decided to isolate and cripple Moscow over Crimea’s annexation brought President Vladimir Putin firmly into the fold
  3. With India, China’s plan was a grander one: the newly elected Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, would visit Xi’an, the original starting point of the old Silk Route, in May 2015, and both leaders would announce their cooperation in the B&R project (then called OBOR or One Belt, One Road), along with plans for the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) economic corridor and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) that was set up in October 2014
  4. The script soured with either Mr. Modi’s announcement of a joint vision with U.S. President Obama for Asia-Pacific (read South China Sea), or Mr. Xi’s announcement of the $46-billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) that runs through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK)\
  5. Therefore, May 2015 plan never materialised, although Mr. Modi did visit Xi’an

Hasn’t given up on India’s participation:

  1. China says it still hasn’t given up on Indian participation, and the National People’s Congress spokesperson this week repeated the hope that India will attend Mr. Xi’s mega B&R conference on May 14-15 this year
  2. Putin, British Prime Minister Theresa May, Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif are among the invitees expected
  3. However, the government has made it clear it is prepared to sit out the event over the principle of sovereignty
  4. When asked, a senior official said, “It is impossible for us to go and sit even as observers in the conference at this point — with the Belt and Road map on display showing parts of India in Pakistan”
  5. While the outcome is unfortunate, India’s stand over the line going through PoK is understandable

A reset in ties required:

  1. There is every indication that after ‘annus horribilis’ of 2016 for India-China ties, overshadowed by China’s opposition to India’s entry into in the Nuclear Suppliers Group and its vetoing of a proposal at the United Nations to declare Masood Azhar a terrorist, New Delhi is looking for a reset
  2. During Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar’s recent visit to Beijing, he was looking forward to a stable, forward-looking relationship to deal with global uncertainties triggered by the Donald Trump administration in the U.S.

The U.S. angle:

  1. Much has been written about the impact of the new U.S. President’s actions on India
  2. The most obvious ones are cutbacks on immigrant visas, restrictions on outsourcing, and ‘SelectUSA’ which will make a dent in the ‘Make in India’ programme, both for manufactured goods and defence purchases
  3. Those actions are held responsible for creating an atmosphere of xenophobia in the U.S. where Indians could be targeted as much as people from countries on the travel ban, and the government has already had to exert considerable diplomatic leverage to exact words of assurances from the U.S. government on behalf of NRIs and PIOs
  4. If the U.S. decides not to build on its pivot to Asia, in addition to pulling out of free trade negotiations like Trans-Pacific Partnership, or doesn’t bolster its naval strength in the Indo-Pacific, those spaces will be occupied by China
  5. In the same vein, if the U.S. continues to cut troops in Afghanistan, lowers its interest in the reconciliation process, or pulls away from the larger discussions on Afghanistan’s future, then Russia has proved willing to move into those roles
  6. If this is to be the reality of Asia, then India will have to rethink its own rebalance of the past few years towards the U.S.

Neighbourhood on board:

  1. A rethink may also be required on India’s own neighbourhood policy
  2. In September last year, the government exerted considerable heft with each of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries to cancel a summit in Pakistan after the Uri attacks
  3. The move was a part of India’s plan to “isolate” Pakistan until it takes action on terror
  4. The truth is that the plan worked for the SAARC summit, but not beyond that, in part because of Pakistan’s involvement with China and the B&R initiative, which has already been signed on to by Afghanistan, Maldives, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh (Nepal is expected to join soon)
  5. Even Afghanistan and Bangladesh, which suffer the most from terrorism emanating from Pakistan, will inevitably be drawn into the B&R group of countries more and more for connectivity and trade, more so in the absence of SAARC
  6. Significantly, it is the Afghanistan leadership that has come out most strongly on the need for India to find its way into the B&R
  7. Both President Ashraf Ghani and former President Hamid Karzai, on visits to India in the past few months, have stressed the importance of connecting India to Central Asia via Afghanistan, joining a “strategic arc” of countries from Iran to Russia and China
  8. These countries, including Iran, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Pakistan, are connecting to each other via B&R through Iran’s North-South corridor, CPEC and other routes already in place, while India’s plans for Chabahar port are still to get off the ground
  9. “Economically, Afghanistan has become a part of Central Asia,” Mr. Ghani has said
  10. Clearly, Afghanistan’s desire to reduce its dependence on Pakistan trade will eventually cut it off from all of South Asia

Contours of a compromise:

  1. If China so wishes, it could still make amends by using the Afghan desire to remain connected by putting the CPEC on an alternate route: to Afghanistan and not PoK, connecting it to the Silk Route envisaged
  2. This would not only build a bigger arc for the B&R route, it would sidestep India’s concerns over sovereignty, and leave the door open for it to join the project on its eastern frontiers via BCIM or to even just be an observer
  3. The issue of specific projects in PoK and Gilgit-Baltistan would remain, but they could be dealt with in the manner the Chinese funding of the Karakoram highway or USAID and Asian Development Bank contributions to the Diamer-Bhasha dam were


  1. The founder of the old Silk Route, Zhang Qian, was not a Chinese emperor or ruler, but a diplomat-warrior
  2. He set out to look for strategic allies for Emperor Wu on a journey that began in 138 BC from the Han capital of Chang’an (now Xi’an)
  3. When he returned he told the emperor he had also learned during his stay in Bactria (Afghanistan and Central Asia) that a more important route for China lay within Shendu (India), through which China could trade over the mountains of Sichuan province


Two thousand years later, it may need both diplomacy and a push from Afghanistan and Central Asia to once again align the lines between India and China, if New Delhi and Beijing wish to ensure that the success they shared via the old Silk Route is given another chance. An important op-ed for Mains.

Themes, Indexes & Reports Around the World Global Groupings

[op-ed snap] The many shades of happiness


  1. In a recent UN report, Norway was declared as the “world’s happiest country”
  2. The top of the list included Denmark, Finland and Iceland
  3. The U.S. came 14th and the U.K. was in 19th position
  4. Given the everyday stress and the alienation from social life that defines life in the U.S. and U.K., all one can say is that this World Happiness Report cannot really be about happiness
  5. India was ranked 122nd in this list

Happy days are here again!

  1. The contemporary way to forget worries is through shopping
  2. Happiness is only another commercial product
  3. Happiness as a product makes it possible for it to be designed, packaged and delivered when and where needed
  4. Our society is full of products, most of which are designed primarily to make us ‘happy’. Not a surprise that shopping is the easiest route to happiness today
  5. Happiness as accumulation and consumption of goods, as a kind of product that can be sold, is endemic to modern definitions of happiness
  6. From Happy Days we have moved to Happy Hours, a more desperate sales pitch to make people consume more alcohol
  7. This inculcation towards consumption as somehow related to happiness begins early in our life, in that celebration called the Birthday

Birthday celebrations- a consumerism:

  1. For children today, increasingly across all sections of the society, happiness on this day is nothing more than cutting a cake, singing the birthday song and wearing new clothes
  2. Birthdays have succeeded in reducing our idea of happiness into a set of rituals of consumerism
  3. It is interesting to contrast this with more traditional modes of celebrating birthdays which were primarily about thanksgiving and prayers for the future rather than an excuse for a ‘birthday party’

The ritual of happiness:

  1. Now, we have converted religious and cultural festivals into Happy Days. Every event has to be a happy event: Happy Diwali, Happy Christmas, Happy Independence Day and so on
  2. There is tremendous pressure to show that we are happy, whether we are really happy or not
  3. And since we manage to be quite unhappy most of the time, it is easier to follow a ritual of happiness rather than strive for happiness
  4. In this proliferation of Happy Days, it is only the business people who seem to have attained happiness!

Age-old definition of happiness:

  1. The relation between shopping and happiness is a cynical continuation of the age-old relationship between happiness and freedom
  2. We are often told that freedom is happiness and our unhappiness arises from various constraints placed on our personal and social life
  3. But, most often, when we have ‘pure’ freedom, we suffer
  4. Sometimes we do not know what to do, how to act. Many times an existential angst begins to pervade the free individual
  5. One of the freedoms much talked about is the one to have multiple sexual partners
  6. Are people who are not monogamous in their relationship more happy? Those who escape commitment in a relationship — are they more free and happy? In other words, do we desire freedom in order to be happy?
  7. If so, then freedom has been an abysmal failure, since when we are free to do what we want, we end up being dissatisfied
  8. Living in highly restricted contexts is also a sure recipe for unhappiness; so what are we to do? Like everything else about human life, there is a middle path and the real task is only to find this path

The reality of happiness:

  1. There is truth in the observation that some poor people are happier than some richer folks, and that children are happier than adults
  2. It is true that we discover sudden moments of happiness when listening to music or watching a beautiful sight
  3. This experience of happiness when you listen to music or see the mountains is not akin to a psychological state of joy or the pleasure of the senses
  4. When a parent sees her child, the happiness she gets is not in the sensual pleasure of seeing that child but in something more
  5. Happiness is more than pleasure or joy since the poor do not find any pleasure in being poor but in spite of it they find moments of happiness
  6. The happiness associated with love is a good example. Love may not always be joyful and pleasurable, it may not even be pleasant all the time but the moment of happiness that defines that love is indeed real and rare
  7. Living in constant comfort does not lead to happiness, it can only lead to boredom

What then is the nature of happiness?

  1. It is one which arises from the removal of ego and from being aware that there is no real difference between an individual and the world
  2. It is the state where knowledge, artificial distinctions and utilitarian values do not figure
  3. Happiness is the state where it is not possible to distinguish between the person who is experiencing and the object of experience
  4. This is also the state of surrender — to another individual, to nature or to the divine


Surely this is not the happiness which the UN report refers to nor is it even part of the world view of the culture of the countries high up in the list. To find something close to this notion of happiness, they would have to walk the streets of societies in which people still happily smile through the rubble of their everyday world. This op-ed can be helpful in Essay writing.

Human Development Report by UNDP Global Groupings

[op-ed snap] Superpower dreams: On how India must response to a low HDI rank


  1. India’s rank of 131 among 188 countries on the UNDP’s Human Development Index for 2015
  2. Its ‘medium’ performance pose the uncomfortable question: would not the score have been significantly better if the higher economic growth trajectory of two and a half decades of liberalisation had been accompanied by a parallel investment in people?

Investment in people:

  1. Rise in incomes that came with a more open economy has not translated into a higher quality of life for many Indians
  2. There is rise in overall life expectancy at birth by more than 10 years from the 1990 level, to reach 68.3 years
  3. Progress has also been made in raising awareness about issues affecting women’s empowerment, such as public safety, acid attacks, discrimination in inheritance rights and lack of equal employment opportunity
  4. Policy reforms have been instituted in some of these areas as a result

The loopholes:

  1. The HDI data show, significant inequalities persist, particularly between States and regions, which act as major barriers to improvement
  2. The percentage of women in the workforce is the lowest in India among the BRICS countries, and the national record on the population that lives in severe multidimensional poverty is also the worst in the bloc
  3. These are clear pointers to the lost decades for India, when universalisation of education and health care could have pulled deprived sections out of the poverty trap

The road ahead:

  1. A central focus on social indicators is necessary for India to break free from its position as an underachiever
  2. The fiscal space now available has been strengthened by steady economic growth, and more should be done to eliminate subsidies for the richest quintile — estimated by the UNDP to be $16 billion in 2014 in six consumption areas including gold and aviation fuel
  3. The rise in revenues from all sources should go towards making public education of high standards accessible to all and delivering on the promised higher budgetary outlay for health care
  4. Bolstered by a conscious effort to help traditionally backward regions, such policies will help eliminate the losses produced by inequalities that lower national human development indices
  5. One crucial metric that gets insufficient attention in the measurement of development is the state of democracy, reflected among other things in access to justice
  6. It is relevant to point out that India has not ratified UN conventions on torture, rights of migrant workers and their families, and protection against enforced disappearance
  7. This is a serious lacuna for a country that otherwise has a commitment to democracy and the rule of law


With the growing realisation that development is a multidimensional achievement, the gains of economic reforms must help build capabilities and improve the health of all sections. Sustaining and improving the quality of life will depend on policies crafted to handle major emerging challenges such as urbanisation, the housing deficit, access to power, water, education and health care. The op-ed is important for Mains.

Parched Earth : The Water Crisis in India Conservation & Mitigation

[pib] Dream of ‘Har Ghar Jal’ will be realized by 2030

  1. Context: Government launched National Water Quality Sub Mission on Arsenic and Fluoride
  2. Aim: To provide safe drinking water to about 28,000 affected habitations in the country by March 2021 with an outlay of Rs 25,000 crore
  3. Issues: West Bengal is badly affected by the problem of arsenic, Rajasthan suffers from presence of fluoride in drinking water with serious health hazards
  4. There will be no discrimination of funds against any state to address the twin challenges of drinking water and sanitation
  5. The Government is committed to providing tap water on a sustained basis in every household by 2030 as per the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for which Rs 23,000 crore of central fund will be required annually till the target is achieved


A Prelim tit-bit.

Start-up Ecosystem In India Industries

[pib] Cabinet approves of proposal to establish a Fund of Fund for Start-ups (FFS)

  1. The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved proposals with regard to the Fund of Funds of Start-ups (FFS) which was established in June, 2016 with a corpus of Rs. 1,000 crores
  2. FFS:
  • The Union Cabinet had earlier approved the proposal to establish a Fund of Funds for Start-ups (FFS) with a total corpus of Rs.10000 crore
  • The contribution spread over the 14th & 15th Finance Commission cycles based on progress of implementation and availability of funds
  • The FFS shall contribute to the corpus of Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) for investing in equity and equity linked instruments of various start-ups at early stage, seed stage and growth stages
  • The FFS is being managed and operated by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)


Important for Prelims.


[Announcement] APSIP Essay by K Siddhartha Sir starts 2nd April 2017

People behind the initiative

The programme is under the guidance of Sri K. Siddhartha, who will set the mindset, attitude and tone of the examiner as per the UPSC guidelines.

  1. Academic Head- Dr S. Mukherjee, Director ENSEMBLE
  2. Chief Examiner- Dr Brajendra Narayan
  3. Examiners- Dr Pandey ex UPSC examiner
  4. Examiners-Dr A. Padmanabhan
  5. Chief of Administration-Kamlesh Kumar, Kumar Brijmohan

Sir opines that unlike GS papers where students seldom cross 100+ in the IAS Mains, it is relatively easy to get 120+ and in some exceptional cases, even  140+ in the Essay examination. We plan to train you for the 140+ milestone. 

Essay and Ethics Papers are like black box and an above average performance in these two not only balances the rough edges off other GS Papers but also smoothens out the uncertainity wrt. optionals papers.

The course has been designed keeping in mind the proximity of IAS Prelims 2017 and the 15 mock paper schedule is spaced out in a 5 + 10  manner. 5 before Prelims and 10 post Prelims.

Important Details

#1. Click to download the Detailed APSIP – Essay Module Framework

#2. Course Fee = 5997 [inclusive of all taxes] Click2register

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