[Starts 1st April] 45 Days Super Intensive Prelims (SIP)

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March 2018
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[Starts 1st April] 45 Days Super Intensive Prelims (SIP)

Last minute revision is the key to cracking the exam. We’ve been preparing for months to finalize the right format which will deal with topics in the right amount of depth as per the requirement of the exam and helps you with maximum retention

Key features of the program:

  • Samanvaya (Mentorship)
  • Samachar Manthan for Pre (Lectures on current affairs)
  • Systematic Core Build-up (Lectures on static subjects)
  • Prelims Mocks: 11 FLTs (8 paper 1 TS + 3 CSAT) + 10 Dedicated CA Tests

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Vehicle scrapping policy for commercial vehicles may come into effect from 2020


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Particulars of the policy and possible benefits of it.


Vehicle scrapping policy

  1. The central government’s ambitious vehicle scrapping policy will become compulsory for all commercial vehicles from 2020 onwards and their life will be capped at 20 years
  2. The plan is to try and get the GST Council to consider a lower goods and services tax, or GST, on new commercial vehicles bought against a scrapped one, from the current rate of 28% to between 12% and 18%
  3. Once the cabinet approves the scheme, and till the deadline of 2020 when it kicks in, owners of vehicles older than 20 years can voluntarily scrap their vehicles and receive a discount on the purchase of a new one

Direction to the road ministry

  1. The road ministry has been directed to put up a proposal before the cabinet within the next three months, detailing the scheme

Government’s expectations

  1. The government expects 350,000 vehicles to be scrapped in the next two to three years

Possible benefits

  1. It will not only help curb pollution but will also improve safety on the roads
  2. Besides other benefits will also accrue from recycling of scrap

Example of other countries

  1. China managed to remove 340,000 vehicles that were over 10 years old from its roads in 2016 by providing monetary incentives to owners to replace them with new ones
Trade Sector Updates – Falling Exports, TIES, MEIS, Foreign Trade Policy, etc. Industries

Higher trade deficit pushes up Q3 current account deficit to $13.5 billion


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: CAD

Mains level: Reason behind the increase in CAD figures.


Rise in the current account deficit(CAD): Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

  1. The current account deficit (CAD) rose to 2% of the GDP or $13.5 billion in the December quarter, up from $8 billion or 1.4% in the year-ago period, on the back of higher trade deficit
  2. What is the CAD:  It shows the difference between foreign exchange earned and spent

Possible reason behind the increase of the CAD

  1. According to the RBI, the widening of the CAD on a year-on-year basis is primarily due to a higher trade deficit
  2. which rose to $44.1 billion in the reporting quarter due to a larger increase in merchandise imports relative to exports


Current Account Deficit

Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy Health

[op-ed snap] The long fight against TB


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Revised National TB Control Programme

Mains level: Drug resistance and TB


Rising incidence of TB in India

  1. The incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) in India is estimated at 200-300 cases per 100,000 population per year
  2. As a comparison, in western Europe, it is five per 100,000 per year
  3. India’s estimated annual TB burden is 28 lakh, 27% of the global total
  4. Every day 1,200 Indians die of TB — 10 every three minutes
  5. Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) has become a great humanitarian programme of free diagnosis and treatment instead of a control programme

Identification of TB

  1. Infection with TB bacilli is the necessary cause of TB
  2. Cough and blood in sputum occur only in lung TB
  3. Pelvic TB is the commonest cause of female infertility in India
  4. TB can affect the lungs, brain, bones, joints, the liver, intestines or for that matter any organ and can progress slowly or kill in weeks

Designing TB control

In designing TB control three processes must be understood: infection, progression, transmission

  1.  Infection occurs when TB bacilli are inhaled
  2. Progression occurs when bacilli become active, multiply and cause pathology
  3. Only when active TB affects the lungs do bacilli find an exit route to the atmosphere, necessary for transmission

Principles of control

  1. Beginning with schools, public education on TB and its prevention must replace ignorance and misconceptions
  2. No one should spit in public places and also practice cough and sneeze etiquette (covering one’s mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing)
  3. To block transmission, treatment should begin as soon as a symptom shows up

Way forward

  1. To outsmart TB bacilli, we must intercept infection, progression, and transmission
  2. Our only chance of victory is by the concerted use of all interventions — biomedical and socio-behavioral
  3. Any further delay may convert a controllable disease into an uncontrollable one, because of increasing frequency of resistance to drugs against TB
Forest Conservation Efforts – NFP, Western Ghats, etc. Conservation & Mitigation

Government unveils draft national forest policy


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies & interventions for development in various sectors & issues arising out of their design & implementation

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Forest Policy 2018, National Community Forest Management (CFM) Mission, National Board of Forestry (NBF)

Mains level: Policies and programs for forest management and conservation


National Forest Policy

  1. India’s environment ministry has unveiled a draft of the new National Forest Policy
  2. National Forest Policy will be an overarching policy for forest management, with the aim of bringing a minimum of one-third of India’s total geographical area under forest or tree cover
  3. The first National Forest Policy in independent India took effect in 1952, with the second edition in 1988

India’s forest cover

  1. At present, India’s forest and tree cover is estimated to be about 24.39% of the country’s total geographical area

Proposals in NFP 2018

  1. It proposes to restrict schemes and projects which interfere with forests that cover steep slopes, catchments of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, geologically unstable terrain and such other ecologically sensitive areas
  2. It also suggests setting up of two national-level bodies—National Community Forest Management (CFM) Mission and National Board of Forestry (NBF)—for better management of the country’s forests
  3. NBF needs to be headed by the central minister in charge of forests
  4. The draft calls for state boards of forestry headed by state ministers in charge of forests to be established for ensuring inter-sectoral convergence, simplification of procedures, conflict resolution, among other things

Maintenance of forests and green tax

  1. The latest draft of National Forest Policy has omitted any reference to a green tax or a national stream revival programme
  2. It continues to speak about private participation in forest management
  3. Public-private participation models will be developed for undertaking afforestation and reforestation activities in degraded forest areas and forest areas available with forest development corporations and outside forests
  4. It continues with the target of having 33% of India’s geographical area under forest and tree cover
  5. In the hills and mountainous regions, the aim will be to maintain two-thirds of the area under forest and tree cover
Solar Energy – JNNSM, Solar Cities, Solar Pumps, etc. Energy

India to take criminal action against errant solar power developers


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy & their effects on industrial growth

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Domestic content requirement, solar rooftop scheme, RFID, Indian Penal Code

Mains level: Solar power target of India and related issues


Solar power developers using foreign equipment to be penalized

  1. India will penalize solar power developers who are using foreign equipment in power generation projects
  2. These projects were awarded on the basis that they would only use locally-made solar cells and modules

Possible actions

  1. Filing of a criminal case under 420 and related sections of the Indian Penal Code
  2. Blacklisting of the developer for 10 years
  3. Forfeiting of bank guarantee
  4. Disciplinary case against the concerned officers of the state-run firms and the state governments

Solar power program

  1. These projects were awarded under the domestic content requirement (DCR) route by state-owned firms
  2. They are required to use solar cells and panels made in India
  3. Also, under the solar rooftop scheme, the government gives subsidy on the condition that the modules should be made in India
  4. Solar cells can be imported under this scheme

Stringent norms introduced

  1. Indian government’s plans to making it mandatory for developers to publicly disclose the radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag information of the panels used in solar projects
  2. It will also be incumbent on the developers to share the RFID list of rejected panels
  3. The government also introduced stringent quality norms in August for solar equipment to be sold in the country and made the destruction of sub-standard equipment mandatory
Urban Transformation – Smart Cities, AMRUT, etc. Infrastructure

Measurable development: When cities compete


Mains Paper 1: Social issues | Urbanization , their problems & remedies

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Smart Cities Mission, Swachh Survekshan, Liveability Index, Global Liveability Ranking

Mains level: Innovative methods to tackle urbanization problems


Rankings as a tool to gauge urban development

  1. The launch of the Smart Cities Mission in June 2015 spurred urban conurbations to compete for central grants for the first time
  2. The number of cities selected under the mission has risen to 99 already, with proposed investments of over Rs 2 lakh crore
  3. 2015 had also seen the launch of another such competitive development programme – the Swachh Survekshan – among cities to improve urban sanitation
  4. It covered 73 cities and has now been extended to all 4,041 cities in the country

Increasing use of such city rankings

  1. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has now decided to bring out a Liveability Index of 116 cities
  2. These include the 99 smart cities, state capitals, and cities with 1 million-plus population
  3. These cities will be ranked in order of the quality of life they offer
  4. For the 2018 survey, liveability standards with 79 indicators in 15 categories would be used for measuring institutional, social, economic, and physical aspects that affect the quality of life

Global rankings

  1. The Economist Intelligence Unit publishes an annual Global Liveability Ranking
  2. It ranks 140 cities by their urban quality of life based on assessments of stability, healthcare, culture, and environment, education and infrastructure
  3. Intergovernmental organizations such as the EU and UN-Habitat were among the first to try to compare outcomes in city and metropolitan areas
RBI Notifications Finance and Banking

[op-ed snap] Is the Reserve Bank of India toothless?


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Recently, the governor’s speech on 14 March at the Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar, highlights significant issues about the difference in regulation of public and private sector banks. The newscard talks about those issues briefly.



  1. There are some issues raised by the RBI governor regarding the Indian Banking System

First: Dual control over banks based on ownership

  1. This issue is not specific to public sector banks
  2. Even in case of the cooperative banks, dual control was a festering issue
  3. However, in the case of public sector banks, the problem of dual control is even deeper
  4. In addition to ownership and governance-level control, there is also significant operational control that the Union finance ministry exercises
  5. This control bypasses the boards. That is why one cannot hold the board residually responsible for the performance of the bank
  6. A programme like the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is operationally guided by the ministry and bypasses the board-directed strategy
    This issue is not present in private banks
  7. This is control on the banks through the tyranny of circulars, which doesn’t affect private banks
  8. Comparing the PMJDY numbers of private banks and their public sector peers is sufficient to make the point
  9. So, having identified that the framework for regulating public sector banks is different, can the governor cry victim, and does this let the RBI off the hook?
  10. The RBI by suo motu can recommend corrective action to the government
  11. The government may not accept it, as it has not been accepting many of the recommendations of the central bank, but it would have at least done its duty

Second: Blame on limited powers of the RBI

  1. Very much like the government exercising control through the board and through circulars, even the RBI has a board position in each public sector bank
  2. Further, the RBI representative is on the management committee (that approves loans beyond a certain ticket size), the audit committee, the committee of directors (for reviewing vigilance cases) and the remuneration committee of each of these banks
  3. So, not only does the RBI have regulatory oversight, it has board and sub-committee presence in each public sector bank,
  4. which should give the RBI much greater insights than it would get into a private bank
    Powers related to the appointments
  5. Also, the RBI is party to the selection of the whole-time directors of the bank through the selection committee and through its membership on the Banks Board Bureau
  6. The RBI has powers to remove the non-official directors appointed by the Union government as well as the shareholder directors if they do not fulfil the fit-and-proper criteria
    (section 3AB and 3B of the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act)
  7. Moreover, the RBI has powers to appoint an additional director as per section 9A of the above Act
  8. Theoretically, the RBI has a significant say in the constitution of the board of a public sector bank

The way forward

  1. While there is a great deal of reform to be undertaken in the governance and management of public sector banks, the line that the governor has taken, of inadequate powers to act, may be untenable
  2. The framework for the exercise of powers in private sector banks is different from the framework for public sector banks
  3. This has to be recognized
Defence Sector – DPP, Missions, Schemes, Security Forces, etc. Security Issues

Indigenous module for submarines undergoing trials

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | indigenization of technology & developing new technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Air Independent Propulsion, Scorpène submarines, DRDO

Mains level: Defense technologies and Make in India


AIP technology for submarines

  1. The indigenous Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) module is in an advanced stage of trials
  2. It enhances the ability of submarines to stay underwater
  3. It is being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  4. All Scorpène submarines will be equipped with it in due course

Procedure for fitting module on submarines

  1. The AIP module will be installed on the submarines during upgrades
  2. Six Scorpene submarines are being made at Mazagon Dock Limited under technology transfer from France


Scorpène submarines

  1. The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines
  2. In 2005, the Indian Navy ordered six Scorpène-class submarines
  3. All the Indian boats will be built in India
  4. The first Scorpène submarine, named INS Kalvari, was undocked for the purpose of starting sea trials in April 2015
  5. After extensive sea trials, Kalvari was commissioned into the Indian Navy on 14 December 2017

[op-ed snap] Marching against apathy: Agriculture


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: The newscard talks about the recent march(to Mumbai) of the farmers in Maharashtra. And discusses some their issues.



  1. Farmers in villages across the country have felt demeaned and disturbed by the insensitivity of successive governments at the Centre and in the states
  2. The same anguish was felt by the agriculturists who walked more than 160 km from Nashik to Mumbai

What are the issues?

  1. The farmers’ march was not a fallout of a single event
  2. They have been pushed into the streets by the cumulative effects of droughts, falling yields
  3. And aggravated by low farm-gate prices — purchases not made at the announced MSP, unkept promises of compensation for the failure of the cotton crop, which was attacked by the pink bollworm, etc.

The issues are not solved yet

  1. The state had misread the farmers again
  2. The resolute agriculturists did reach Mumbai, only to be duped again
  3. Last year’s verbal assurances of the farm loan waiver have not materialised and the written assurances, this time, of C2+50 per cent and forest rights for forest dwellers may meet with an identical fate

The issue of farmers suicide

  1. In the 10 long years that the Nationalist Congress Party and the Congress were partners in crime in Maharashtra, over 36,000 farmers committed suicide in the state
  2. It is true that the state’s current chief minister inherited a grand mess
  3. But after over three years in office, he cannot escape accountability

Nothing has changed at the central government’s level

  1. The story has striking similarities with what has happened at the Centre
  2. Nothing has changed on the ground for farmers after nearly four years of the NDA government, apart from smarter sloganeering and repackaged programmes
  3. The farmer has realised that things were not meant to change
RBI Notifications Finance and Banking

{op-ed snap] Credit tangle


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: LoUs, Letters of Comfort, etc.

Mains level: Possible effect of the banning of LoUs by the RBI.


RBI’s notification on LoUs

  1. The Reserve Bank of India has decided to ban such instruments as well as letters of comfort issued by bankers to businesses for international transactions
  2. This is the first major step by the central bank on the banking fraud issue,
  3. apart from asking banks to ensure there are no slip-ups between their core banking systems and the SWIFT mechanism used for international money transfers

Why is the industry unhappy with the decision?

  1. Industry is unhappy with the RBI decision as this would raise the cost for importers, who will now need to rely on more expensive instruments such as bank guarantees and letters of credit
  2. The move will also impact the competitiveness of exporters who import raw materials for their products
  3. Ban of LoUs will impact the $85 billion buyers’ credit market that was mostly conducted in accordance with the law of the land

RBI’s argument against the RBI’s inability to detect the fraud

  1. RBI’s governor stressed that the RBI didn’t have adequate powers to regulate public sector banks, and
  2. it could not remove any of their directors or liquidate such a lender, as it can in the case of private sector banks
  3. He made an eloquent demand that the owner of public sector banks (that is, the government) must consider making the RBI’s powers over banks ‘ownership-neutral’ and say what could be done with these banks
  4. The RBI’s stance is valid, as is its discomfort with knee-jerk reactions and the blame games since the fraud came to light

The way forward

  1. Perhaps the RBI could have tightened the norms for LoUs and introduced safeguards based on the latest learnings
  2. It is still not too late to do that


Letter of Comfort (LoC)

  1. A Letter of Comfort (LoC) is a letter issued to a lending institution by a stakeholder of the company acknowledging support of the attempt for financing asked by that company
  2. A letter of comfort does not imply that the parent company guarantees repayment of the loan being sought by the subsidiary company
  3. It merely gives reassurance to the lending institution that the parent company is aware of the credit facility being sought by the subsidiary company, and supports its decision
Fertilizer Sector reforms – NBS, bio-fertilizers, Neem coating, etc. Agriculture

DBT scheme for fertilizer subsidies gets cabinet nod


Mains Paper 3: Agriculture | Issues related to direct & indirect farm subsidies & minimum support prices

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Direct benefit transfer (DBT), Urea subsidy scheme

Mains level: Benefits of DBT scheme in various sectors


DBT for fertilizer subsidy payments

  1. The government has decided to implement direct benefit transfer (DBT) for fertilizer subsidy payments across India
  2. By this, the government seeks to prevent diversion of fertilizers for commercial use and generate data on the usage of the nutrients to help farmers

Rollout already began in most states

  1. The department of fertilizers has already rolled out the programme in most states
  2. Data obtained from it shows that transaction time and alleged instances of overcharging by retailers have come down
  3. Also, offtake has moderated, suggesting that overuse of subsidized fertilizers and their diversion for industrial use have declined

DBT model for fertilizer

  1. The DBT model for fertilizers, however, is slightly different from that for others such as cooking gas, in which the ultimate consumer gets the entitlement in their bank account
  2. DBT would entail 100% payment to fertilizer companies on sale of fertilizers to farmers at subsidized rates
  3. This is done because farmers cannot be forced to pay large amounts upfront for fertilizers and wait for reimbursement

Urea subsidy scheme

  1. The cabinet has also approved the continuation of the urea subsidy scheme for three years till 2020
  2. There will be no urea price hike till 2020
  3. The subsidy for locally produced and imported urea is part of the annual fertilizer subsidy outgo
Telecom and Postal Sector – Spectrum Allocation, Call Drops, Predatory Pricing, etc Industries

Trai planning a UPI-like system for public Wi-Fi hot spots


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: TRAI, Unified Payments Interface, WANI system

Mains level: Efforts for ensuring universal internet coverage in India


Policy for public Wi-Fi hotspots

  1. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) aims to develop a framework similar to the Unified Payments Interface (UPI) to aid the rollout of public Wi-Fi hotspots in the country
  2. It has been conducting pilots for Wi-Fi hotspots in Noida and Bengaluru

A target of 5 lakh hotspots

  1. Department of telecommunications (DoT) which has separately set an ambitious target of deploying 500,000 Wi-Fi hotspots by December across the country from the current 38,000

How will the system work?

  1. TRAI is working on a framework which will ensure that the Wi-Fi hotspots can be provided in a seamless manner, in a grid situation
  2. It will be prescribing interoperable standards to authenticate the user, payment mechanism, and unbundling (operations)
  3. What UPI is for the payment ecosystem, this framework will be for the Wi-Fi hotspot ecosystem
  4. Launched in 2016, UPI is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile app (of any participating bank), merging several banking features, seamless fund routing and merchant payments under one hood

Draft design of public Wi-Fi network project

  1. In July last year, Trai issued a draft design of public Wi-Fi network project under which any entity with a valid permanent account number (PAN) would be allowed to set up public data offices (PDOs)
  2. The draft design also provided detailed technical specifications for compliance by various providers to ensure full Wi-Fi access network interface (WANI) system interoperability
  3. Trai had also recommended a central registry managed by either itself or DoT or an entity approved by either of them containing information about the PDOs
Central Public Sector Undertakings : Policy Wise Finance and Banking

Govt discusses handing maintenance of seized properties to NBCC


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Mobilization of resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC), Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA)

Mains level: Central government undertakings and their functioning


Properties confiscated under PMLA to be transferred

  1. The government is considering handing the task of maintaining, managing and earning revenue from immovable properties attached in money laundering cases to the National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC)
  2. These properties were seized, frozen or confiscated under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA)


  1. The proposal to mandate NBCC to do the job was at the behest of the ED and mooted by the finance ministry about six months ago
  2. It was felt that lack of proper maintenance led to the decay of the properties and the agency had to continuously spend on their upkeep
  3. As of now, the ED manages the properties confiscated by it but does not have experience in how to do so

Provisions in PMLA

  1. There is no provision under PMLA for rental to earn revenue
  2. The government may consider amending necessary laws to ensure better upkeep of confiscated properties


National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC)

  1. It is a blue-chip Government of India Navratna Enterprise under the Ministry of Urban Development
  2. NBCC has a specialized subsidiary to handle tasks for managing the seized land the government and from central PSUs
  3. It is the sole land authorized agency for central undertakings
  4. The Company’s present areas of operations are categorized into three main segments

(i) Project Management Consultancy (PMC)

(ii) Real Estate Development

(iii) EPC Contracting

Oil and Gas Sector – HELP, Open Acreage Policy, etc. Energy

India likely to push for dropping ‘Asian premium’ on oil prices


Mains Paper 2: IR | Effect of policies & politics of developed & developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Asian premiumInternational Energy Forum, Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Mains level: India’s high dependence on oil imports and measures to develop alternative power sources


Ending discriminatory premium on oil

  1. India is likely to lobby heavily for an end to the discriminatory “Asian premium” on oil prices and a “responsible” price mechanism
  2. The 16th International Energy Forum Ministerial Meeting will be held in New Delhi, India from 10-12 April 2018

IEF conference

  1. The IEF represents 90% of world consumption and production of oil and gas
  2. Key Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) including Saudi Arabia and Iran’s petroleum ministers will attend the conference

What is Asian premium?

  1. IEF countries distinguished consumers in Asia from the U.S. and European countries in deciding oil prices
  2. The demands to abolish it have met with little success

Focus on renewable energy

  1. The thrust of the IEF conference will be on moving away from fossil fuels
  2. The outcomes would revolve around the whole issue of transition: of moving to electric vehicles, or renewables or decarbonization


International Energy Forum

  1. IEF is the world’s largest recurring gathering of energy ministers
  2. It is unique in that participants not only include IEA and OPEC countries, but also key international actors such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa
  3. The IEF is promoted by a permanent Secretariat based in the Diplomatic Quarter of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  4. The 16th IEF International Energy Forum Ministerial will take place on 10-12 April in New Delhi under the theme “The Future of Global Energy Security: Transition, Technology, Trade and Investment”
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