08th Oct 2021
Geographical Indications in India
- A Geographical Indication is used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
- Such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to its origin in that defined geographical locality.
- This tag is valid for a period of 10 years following which it can be renewed.
- Recently the Union Minister of Commerce and Industry has launched the logo and tagline for the Geographical Indications (GI) of India.
- The first product to get a GI tag in India was the Darjeeling tea in 2004.
- The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (GI Act) is a sui generis Act for the protection of GI in India.
- India, as a member of the WTO, enacted the Act to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
- Geographical Indications protection is granted through the TRIPS Agreement.
Two well-known products from Tamil Nadu — Dindigul lock and Kandangi Saree — have been given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag by The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai.
- The Dindigul locks are known throughout the world for their superior quality and durability, so much so that even the city is called Lock City.
- Government institutions such as prisons, godowns, hospitals, and even temples use these locks instead of other machine-made ones.
- The application for the lock was made by the Dindigul Lock, Hardware and Steel Furniture Workers Industrial Co-operative Society Limited.
- More than 3,125 lock manufacturing units are limited to an area of 5 km in and around Dindigul.
- The abundance of iron in this region is the reason for the growth of the industry.
- There are over 50 varieties of locks made by the artisans using raw materials such as MS flat plates and brass plates procured from the nearby towns, including Madurai and Salem.
The Kandangi sarees
- The Kandangi sarees are manufactured in the entire Karaikudi taluk in Sivaganga district.
- They are characterised by large contrast borders and some are known to have borders covering as far as two-thirds of the saree which is usually around 5.10 m-5.60 m in length.
- Worn in summer, these cotton sarees are usually bought by customers in bulk.
- The Amarar Rajeev Gandhi Handloom Weavers Co-operative Production and Sales Society Limited filed the application for the Kandangi saree.
- PalaniPanchamirtham, an abishegaPrasadam, from Palani Town is one of the main offerings in the Abisegam of Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of the Temple.
- It is a combination of five natural substances, namely, banana, jaggery sugar, cow ghee, honey and cardamom in a definite proportion.
- It is prepared in a natural method without addition of any preservatives or artificial ingredients and is well known for its religious fervour and gaiety.
- This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been bestowed with the GI tag.
- Tawlhlohpuan, a medium to heavy, compactly woven, good quality fabric from Mizoram is known for warp yarns, warping, weaving & intricate designs that are made by hand.
- Tawlhloh, in Mizo language, means ‘to stand firm or not to move backward’. Tawlhlohpuan, which holds high significance in the Mizo society, is produced throughout the state of Mizoram, Aizawl and Thenzawl town being the main centre of production.
- Mizo Puanchei, a colourful Mizo shawl/textile, from Mizoram, is considered as the most colourful among the Mizo textiles.
- It is an essential possession for every Mizo lady and an important marriage outfit in the state.
- It is also the most commonly used costume in Mizo festive dances and official ceremonies.
- The weavers insert the designs and motifs by using supplementary yarns while weaving to create this beautiful and alluring textile.
Tirur betel vine
- Tirur betel vine from Kerala is mainly cultivated in Tirur, Tanur, Tirurangadi, Kuttippuram, Malappuram and Vengara block panchayaths of Malappuram District.
- It is valued both for its mild stimulant action and medicinal properties.
- Even though it is commonly used for making pan masala for chewing, it has many medicinal, industrial and cultural usages and is considered as a remedy for bad breath and digestive disorders.
Panchamirtham’ of Palani temple gets GI tag
- The famous Palani panchamirtham, given as ‘prasadam’ at the Murugan temple at Palani has been granted the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
- This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been given the GI tag.
About the Panchamirtham
- It is sweet in taste and one of the main offerings for Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Temple, situated on Palani Hills.
- The panchamirtham is a combination of five natural substances — banana, jaggery, cow ghee, honey and cardamom.
- Dates and diamond sugar candies are added for flavour.
- The panchamirtham is an ‘abhishega prasadam’ (food that is a religious offering), which is served in a semi-solid state.
- Not even a single drop of water is added during the preparation of the panchamirtham.
- This gives it its classic semi-solid consistency and taste. No preservatives or artificial ingredients are used.
- Pashmina is a fine type of cashmere wool. The textiles made from it were first woven in Kashmir.
- The wool comes from a number of different breeds of the cashmere goat; such as the changthangi or Kashmir pashmina goat from the Changthang Plateau in Tibet and part of the Ladakh region and few parts of Himachal Pradesh.
- Often shawls called shahmina are made from this material in Kashmir and Nepal; these shawls are hand spun and woven from the very fine cashmere fibre.
- Traditional producers of pashmina wool are people known as the Changpa.
About Kodaikanal’s malai poondu Garlic
- Also known by its scientific name Allium Sativum, this particular garlic is known for its medicinal and preservative properties. It is grown in the Kodaikanal Hills, Dindugul district.
- It has anti-oxidant and anti-microbial potential, which is attributed to the presence of higher amount of organosulfur compounds, phenols and flavonoids compared to other garlic varieties.
- Its usually white or pale yellow and each bulb weighs 20-30g on an average.
- According to the GI application, Kodaikanal Hill Garlic cultivation is done twice in a year, once around May and for second time in November depending upon the suitability of the climate.
- The hill altitude, the misty condition and the soil prevailing in the Kodaikanal region are responsible for its medicinal property and the long storage shelf life of the garlic.
- According to the GI application made by the two states, Kolhapuris can be traced back to the 12th century King Bijjal who ruled Bidar in Karnataka.
- His prime minister Vishwaguru Basavanna wanted to create a casteless society and remove the stigma associated with the cobbler community.
- The community embraced Lingayat faith and used its creative skills to start producing footwear known equally for its ruggedness and regal bearing.
- Brand Kolhapuri came into being only in the beginning of 20th century when the footwear began to be traded in Kolhapur.
- Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj (1874-1922) of Kolhapur encouraged its production and 29 tanning centres were opened during his rule in Kolhapur.
- Kandhamal in Odisha’s southern hinterland is famed for its turmeric, a spice that enjoys its pride of place in an array of cuisines.
- The agricultural product also stands out for its healing properties and arresting aroma.
- The GI tag was primarily developed with the purpose of recognising the unique identity connecting different products and places.
- For a product to get GI tag it has to have a unique quality, reputation or characteristic which is attributable to its geographic origin. ‘Kandhamal Haldi’ has been placed under Class-30 type.
GI Tag for 5 Indian Coffee varieties
Coorg Arabica coffee
- It is grown specifically in the region of Kodagu district in Karnataka.
Wayanaad Robusta coffee
- It is grown specifically in the region of Wayanad district which is situated on the eastern portion of Kerala.
Chikmagalur Arabica coffee
- It is grown specifically in the region of Chikmagalur district and it is situated in the Deccan plateau, belongs to the Malnad region of Karnataka.
Araku Valley Arabica coffee
- It is coffee from the hilly tracks of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha region at an elevation of 900-1100 Mt MSL.
- The coffee produce of Araku, by the tribals, follows an organic approach in which they emphasise management practices involving substantial use of organic manures, green manuring and organic pest management practices.
Bababudangiris Arabica coffee
- It is grown specifically in the birthplace of coffee in India and the region is situated in the central portion of Chikmagalur district.
- Selectively hand-picked and processed by natural fermentation, the cup exhibits full body, acidity, mild flavour and striking aroma with a note of chocolate.
- This coffee is also called high grown coffee which slowly ripens in the mild climate and thereby the bean acquires a special taste and aroma.
- It is cultivated in Yellapura, Siddapura and Sirsi taluks.
- Totgars’ Cooperative Sale Society Ltd., Sirsi, is the registered proprietor of the GI.
- The arecanut grown in these taluks have unique features like a round and flattened coin shape, particular texture, size, cross-sectional views, taste, etc.
- These features are not seen in arecanut grown in any other regions.
- The lychee crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts.
- Cultivation of litchi covers approximately an area of about 25,800 hectares producing about 300,000 tonnes every year.
- India’s share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%.
- The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China.
- The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.
King of Mangoes gets GI tag
- Alphonso from Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Palghar, Thane and Raigad districts of Maharashtra, is registered as Geographical Indication (GI).
- The king of mangoes, Alphonso, better known as ‘Hapus’ in Maharashtra, is in demand in domestic and international markets not only for its taste but also for pleasant fragrance and vibrant colour.
- It has long been one of the world’s most popular fruit and is exported to various countries including Japan, Korea and Europe.
- New markets such as USA and Australia have recently opened up.
GI Tag for Telangana
- The Chennai-based GI Registry gave Geographical Indication certificate for Warangal dhurries
- The shatranji carpets and jainamaaz prayer mats are made in Warangal
Specialty of carpets
- Bright colors, geometrically repetitive patterns and interlocking zigzag motifs in cotton and jute are the signature styles of the carpets
- One of the newest innovations by the weavers here is an adaptation of tie-dyed ikat techniques and hand-painted or block-printed kalamkari designs for the dhurries to save time and energy.
- Kalamkari or qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, produced in Iran and
- Its name originates in the Persian, which is derived from the words qalam (pen) and kari (craftsmanship),
meaning drawing with a pen
- There are two distinctive styles of kalamkari art in India – the Srikalahasti style and the Machilipatnam
- The Srikalahasti style of kalamkari, wherein the "kalam" or pen is used for freehand drawing of the
subject and filling in the colors is entirely hand worked
- The Pedana Kalamkari craft made at Pedana nearby Machilipatnam in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh,
evolved with the patronage of the Mughals and the Golconda sultanate
MP gets GI tag for a chicken breed
- Madhya Pradesh has received the Geographical Indications (GI) tag for Kadaknath, a chicken breed whose black meat is in demand in some quarters
- The protein-rich meat of Kadaknath, chicks, and eggs are sold at a much higher rate than other varieties of chicken.
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