Categories
Announcements

Zoom Link Inside || Join Now || Samarth 2022 – Live Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: Join Now for Free

Webinar Joining Link: https://zoom.us/j/94501231468?pwd=eVlUMnhmbnQ2MFhEaVIzdWJWdmpXdz09

Meeting ID: 945 0123 1468
Passcode: 632515

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
Announcements

Registration Closing at 5 PM Today || Samarth 2022 – Live Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: 7 PM

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
Announcements

Registration Closing at 5 PM Today || Samarth 2022 – Live Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: 7 PM

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
Announcements

Samarth 2022-Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: 7 PM

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
Announcements

Samarth 2022-Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: 7 PM

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
Burning Issues

[Burning Issue] Issue of Undertrials and Custodial Deaths

Justice delayed is justice denied.

-William Gladstone

The term ‘Under-trial’ denotes an unconvicted prisoner i.e. one who has been detained in prison during the period of investigation, inquiry, or trial for the offense s/he is accused to have committed. The share of undertrials lodged in prisons for more than a year has increased over time as the percentage of cases pending judgment in courts has also increased sharply.

The continued incarceration of under-trials in overcrowded prisons represents a failure of our democratic society as well as the rule of law. After the death of Stan Swamy in custody, questions about the conditions of jails and treatment of the incarcerated have been raised once again.

What is the status of under trial in India?

data: Undertrials in India
  • 65% of the people in Indian jails are under trials – those detained in prisons during trial, investigation or inquiry but not convicted of any crime in a court of law.
  • The share of the prison population awaiting trial or sentencing in India is extremely high. Two of every three persons incarcerated in India have not yet been convicted of any crime.
  • Comparing this with India, it is 11% in the UK, 20% in the US and 29% in France.
  • More than 25% of under trial prisoners in 16 out of 36 states and union territories have been detained for more than one year in 2014.
  • The number of convicts in jails grew by 1.4% from 2012 to 2013, but the number of under trials shot up by 9.3% during the period.
  • Men make up more than 90% of all prison inmates. Nearly 2,000 children of women inmates live behind bars, 80% of those women being under trials.

What are the issues involved in undertrials in India?

The report ‘Justice Undertrial: A Study of Pre-trial Detention in India’ analyzed data available with the National Crime Records Bureau and records collected by the human rights organization from the country’s 500-odd district and central jails through Right to Information petitions.

The issues involved in under trials are:

(1) Mostly Muslims, Dalits, Adivasis – Marginalized communities form the bulk of the under-trial population in India.

(2) Rarely produced in a court-Records show that in states such as Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka under-trials are routinely not produced in court.

(3) Inadequate legal aid –

  • According to the report, at least 23 prisons reported having no legal aid lawyers.
  • Haryana has the highest number of legal aid lawyers in the country but the number of prison visits by each lawyer per month is strikingly low.
  • This shows that legal aid is not efficiently provided in most of the country’s prisons.

(4) Legal aid lawyers are poorly paid – The paucity of legal aid lawyers is hardly surprising given the poor remuneration they receive for filing bail applications.

(5) Wrongly released –

  • If under trials are held for a period equal to half their potential sentence then under Section 436A of the Code of Criminal Procedure they are eligible for release on a personal bond.
  • After release, they are required to appear at all future court dates. However, the report states that a large number of undertrials have been incorrectly released under the law.

(6) Supreme Court guidelines on bail are not followed – Some of the judges even at the High Court level are not following the guidelines laid down by the Supreme Court on bail and grant of the same is dependent upon the attitude of each judge. The right to bail is denied even in genuine cases.

(7) Politicization of Legal Aid Schemes – In the absence of a system that takes a proactive role in providing legal services to prisoners their right to effective Legal Aid is also violated due to the politicization of legal aid schemes as many lawyers are hired on political consideration who get a fixed salary without the pressure of disposing-off cases at the earliest.

(8) Sanitation, unhygienic food, and health problems

  • No serious effort is taken about basic human rights once a person falls behind bars. There is a lack of sanitation and many times food offered is not worthy of even offering to the animals.
  • There are cases of sexual violence, especially in isolated environments people tend to forget all boundaries.
  • Homosexuality leads to possible HIV/STD cases. For women prisoners, custodial sexual exploitation by fellow prisoners and a male security guard is also prevalent. There is a clear lack of respect for human dignity here.
  • In 1994, an IPS officer Kiran Bedi tried to offer condoms to prisoners to control STD cases, but it was taken back due to huge protest seen thereafter.

(9) Staff crunch

  • While 33% of the total requirement of prison officials still lies vacant, almost 36% of vacancy for supervising officers is still unfulfilled. The manpower recruited inside this prison is almost 50% short of its actual requirement.
  • States like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand have the most scantily guarded jails, seeing over 65% of staff vacancies among jailers.
  • In the absence of adequate prison staff, overcrowding of prisons leads to rampant violence and other criminal activities inside the jails.

(10) Lack of use of provisions – Even though the provisions to avoid unnecessary detention of prisoners have been in existence for years, they are not implemented because of the following reasons:

  1. Most prisoners are not only unaware of their right to seek release but also too poor to furnish surety.
  2. Lack of sympathy by the administration.

(11) The Right to Speedy Trial – as recognized by the Supreme Court in Hussainara Khatoon vs. Home Secretary Bihar is violated due to protracted delays.

Reasons behind the delays in trials:

  • Systemic delays
  • Grossly inadequate number of judges and prosecutors.
  • Absence or belated service of summons on witnesses.
  • Presiding judges proceeding on leave.
  • Remands being extended mechanically due to lack of time and patience with the presiding judge.
  • Inadequacy of police personnel and vehicles which prevents the production of all prisoners on their due dates.
  • Many a times the escorting police personnel merely produce the remand papers in the courts instead of actually producing the prisoner in front of the magistrate.

State of Indian Prisons

The ‘Prison Statistics India 2015’ report was released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). The data are given in the report tell us about the following things regarding the state of Indian prisons:

(1) The problem of overcrowding – The report calls overcrowding “one of the biggest problems faced by prison inmates.” It results in poor hygiene and lack of sleep among other problems.  Dadra & Nagar Haveli is reported to have the most overcrowded prisons followed by Chhattisgarh Delhi and Meghalaya.

(2) Two-thirds of the prisoners are under trial – Sixty-seven per cent of the people in Indian jails are undertrials — people not convicted of any crime and currently on trial in a court of law. Among the larger States, Bihar had the highest proportion of undertrials followed by Jammu & Kashmir, Odisha, Jharkhand, and Delhi.

(3) Foreign Convicts – Over two thousand foreign convicts were lodged in various jails in India at the end of 2015. The highest numbers of foreign convicts were in the jails of West Bengal followed by Andaman & Nicobar Island.

(4) Prisoner Profile – Seventy per cent of the convicts are illiterate or have studied only below class tenth.

(5) Capital Punishment – Over a hundred people were awarded the death penalty (101) in 2015. Forty-nine were commuted to a life sentence.

What are the basic rights of under-trials?

  • Hence, all such rights except those that are taken away in the legitimate process of incarceration still remain with the prisoner.
  • These include rights that are related to the protection of basic human dignity as well as those for the development of the prisoner into a better human being.
  • Every convict and under trial has been conferred with certain rights which have been enumerated in Part III of the Constitution of India so that their life as a prisoner is dignified and comfortable because a prisoner remains a ‘person’ in prisoner.

Custodial death in India

  • Open secret – In a country where custodial torture and killing is an open secret, it is baffling that we still do not have a domestic law that enables torture prosecution by accounting for the particularities of custodial torture.
  • There were on an average 5 custodial deaths per day in India during 1st April 2017 and 28th February 2018.
  • As per the report of National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), the number of deaths in police custody between 2001 and 2018 was 1,727. But, only 810 cases were reported, 334 were charge-sheeted out of which just 26 policemen were convicted.
  • Legal burdens – If a person dies in police custody the burden should be on the police to show that they are not responsible for it, the law still requires the prosecution to prove that the police caused the death.
  • UNCAT ratification – India’s political commitment to address torture is symbolized by its failure to ratify the UN Convention Against Torture, and thereby putting itself in the list of only 19 countries to have not adopted it.
  • Magisterial inquiry – Besides the usual police investigation into a custodial death, the law mandates an independent magisterial inquiry.
  • Institutional Apathy – It is perhaps a reflection of our institutional apathy that such inquiries have happened in only about 20% of custodial deaths. Prosecution of police officials for custodial torture requires the sanction of the government.
Stan Swami case
Father Stan Swamy, the 83-year-old activist, was arrested under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) in October 2020 by the National Investigation Agency. He is alleged to have been involved in the 2018 Bhima Koregaon violence in 2018 and his links with Maoists. Father Swamy reportedly made an application to be provided with a sipper and straw as he was unable to hold a glass as he was suffering from Parkinson’s disease. His request was inexplicably deferred for 20 days. The NIA later informed the court that it did not have a straw and sipper to give to him. The court has sought a report from the jail authorities on allowing Father Swamy to receive a straw and sipper at his own cost. After this, he had been provided with a sipper and straw by the jail authorities. The above events demonstrate the insensitivity of legal procedures. Apart from this, it outlines another fundamental issue which is the rights of prisoners with disabilities. The death of Swamy represents negligence of the prison administration as well as a systematic failure in our legal and prison system. The injustice in his case is magnified by the fact that he still awaits trial. The fundamental tenet on which Indian criminal law operates is that an accused is presumed innocent until proven guilty. His guilt or innocence is ultimately a matter for the court to decide. But the denial of his rights by the justice system not only constitutes a legal wrong but also displays an absence of compassion.  

Way forward

  • Under trials should be lodged in separate institutions away from convicted prisoners. There should be proper and scientific classification even among undertrials to ensure the contamination of first-time and petty offenders into full-fledged and hardcore criminals.
  • Establishment and strengthening of fast-track courts.
  • Provisions of Section 167 of the CrPC with regard to the time limit for police investigation in case of accused undertrials should be strictly followed by both the police and courts.
  • Automatic extension of remands has to stop. All undertrials should be effectively produced before the presiding magistrates on the dates of the hearing.
  • Video conferencing between jails and courts should be encouraged and tried in all states beginning with the big Central jails and then expanding to District and Sub jails.
  • Police functions should be separated into investigation and law and order duties and sufficient strength be provided to complete investigations on time and avoid delays.
  • Alternatives to imprisonment should be tried out and incorporated in the IPC.
  • Remand orders should be self-limiting and indicate the date on which the undertrials would be automatically entitled to apply for bail.
  • Computerize the handling of criminal cases and with the help of the National Informatics Centre develop programs that would help in managing pendency and delay of different types of cases.
  • There should be an immediate increase in the number of judges and magistrates in some reasonable proportion to the general population.
Categories
Announcements

Samarth 2022-Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: 7 PM

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
Announcements

Samarth 2022-Webinar by Ajay Verma || How to crack the UPSC IAS exam on the very first attempt? || Register here

Webinar Date: 1st August 2021

Timings: 7 PM

As complicated as it may appear, the UPSC Civil services exam is more about carrying nerves. It’s also about maintaining discipline for the time being and till you succeed. Nor the subjects are esoteric or unheard of. But the character for one to be able to sacrifice the beauty called life and family is rare. Your stay in the game with the zeal to come out winning is very important.

Philosophy aside, but keeping the practical elements in mind, let’s dig a little deeper.  Also, find out what it takes for one to jump that threshold and what our toppers have said. Why have they not been able to clear earlier and what changes have they made to succeed?. These are the most sought-after info and are available on the internet. But from an individual’s perspective, one can not ignore his/her inconclusiveness due to lack of a distinct plan or direction.

Hence, we are coming up with an open session. To counter myths and give some facts which will help you see the light on the other side of the tunnel about the exam.

In this open session, we are going to give a clear insight which is important for one to save time, energy, and effort. Which might otherwise be getting wasted in the wrong direction? This is important because for an individual the first year is the year with maximum energy, expectation from self, go-getter attitude, etc..

We tend to get lost in the sea of advice and sources of studies. To save one from such torrents of information, it’s sometimes said that we need to better know “what not to follow than what to follow”.

Anyways such hypotheses aside, your time in this open session is going to be full of interaction. Some previous year aspirants are also expected to be present. We do expect that all your confusion about the exam will get clear.

Attendees can expect some takeaways too in the form of softcopies relevant to the exam. They will be available to you via email once you have done the registration for the open session.

In this webinar, Ajay Verma, Mentor Head at Civilsdaily will give you an overview:

– What UPSC expects out of you?

– Avoiding Mistakes that can cost you an attempt?

– What to do to master the IAS-Exam?

– How to clear the exam -Step-by-Step learning plan?

– An interactive Q&A session with Current Students at Civilsdaily

– How to clear the exam on the very first attempt?

– Important Civilsdaily softcopies takeaway for exam preparation.

A quick bit about Ajay :

Ajay has firsthand experience with 6 Mains and 3 interviews of UPSC. He has gathered experience working as Mentor-Head at CivilsDaily for the past 3 Yrs and helped many cross the threshold.

Categories
RSTV Archive Yojana/RSTV

[RSTV Archive] Central Bank Digital Currency

In the recent past, worldwide interest in cryptocurrency has risen. A recent survey says 86% of the central banks across the world are actively researching cryptocurrency while 60% are engaged in CBDC. Against this backdrop, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) discussed its “phased implementation strategy” of a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

  • CBDC is a central bank issued digital currency which is backed by some kind of assets in the form of either gold, currency reserves, bonds and other assets, recognised by the central banks as a monetary asset.
  • The present concept of CBDCs was directly inspired by Bitcoin, but a CBDC is different from virtual currency and cryptocurrency.
  • Cryptocurrencies are not issued by a state and lack the legal tender status declared by the government.

What is Currency chest?

Currency in India is managed by Currency chest. Currency chest is a place where the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) stocks the money meant for banks and ATMs. These chests are usually situated on the premises of different banks but administrated by the RBI.

Why India needs a digital rupee?

  • Online transactions: India is a leader in digital payments, but cash remains dominant for small-value transactions.
  • High currency in circulation: India has a fairly high currency-to-GDP ratio.
  • Cost of currency management: An official digital currency would reduce the cost of currency management while enabling real-time payments without any inter-bank settlement.

Why is CBDC preferred over Cryptocurrency?

  • Sovereign guarantee: Cryptocurrencies pose risks to consumers.  They do not have any sovereign guarantee and hence are not legal tender.
  • Market volatility: Their speculative nature also makes them highly volatile.  For instance, the value of Bitcoin fell from USD 20,000 in December 2017 to USD 3,800 in November 2018.
  • Risk in security: A user loses access to their cryptocurrency if they lose their private key (unlike traditional digital banking accounts, this password cannot be reset).
  • Malware threats: In some cases, these private keys are stored by technical service providers (cryptocurrency exchanges or wallets), which are prone to malware or hacking.
  • Money laundering: Cryptocurrencies are more vulnerable to criminal activity and money laundering.  They provide greater anonymity than other payment methods since the public keys engaging in a transaction cannot be directly linked to an individual.
  • Regulatory bypass: A central bank cannot regulate the supply of cryptocurrencies in the economy.  This could pose a risk to the financial stability of the country if their use becomes widespread.
  • Power consumption: Since validating transactions is energy-intensive, it may have adverse consequences for the country’s energy security (the total electricity use of bitcoin mining, in 2018, was equivalent to that of mid-sized economies such as Switzerland).

Features of CBDC

  • High-security instrument: CBDC is a high-security digital instrument; like paper banknotes, it is a means of payment, a unit of account, and a store of value.
  • Uniquely identifiable: And like paper currency, each unit is uniquely identifiable to prevent counterfeit.
  • Liability of central bank: It is a liability of the central bank just as physical currency is.
  • Transferability: It’s a digital bearer instrument that can be stored, transferred, and transmitted by all kinds of digital payment systems and services.

Key benefits offered

  • Faster system: CBDC can definitely increase the transmission of money from central banks to commercial banks and end customers much faster than the present system.
  • Financial inclusion: Specific use cases, like financial inclusion, can also be covered by CBDC that can benefit millions of citizens who need money and are currently unbanked or banked with limited banking services
  • Monetary policy facilitation: The move to bring out a CBDC could significantly improve monetary policy development in India.
  • Making of a regional currency: In the cross border payments domain, India can take a lead by leveraging digital Rupee especially in countries such as Bhutan, Saudia Arabia and Singapore where NPCI has existing arrangements.

Others:

  • It is efficient than printing notes (cost of printing, transporting, and storing paper currency)
  • It reduces the risk of transactions
  • It makes tax collection transparent
  • Prevents money laundering

Issues involved with CBDC

  • Innovation with centralization: The approach of bringing a sovereign digital currency stands in stark contrast to the idea of decentralization.
  • Liability on RBI:  when bank customers wish to convert their deposits into digital rupee, the RBI will have to take these liabilities from the books of banks and onto its own balance sheet.
  • Inflationary risk: Central banks would indulge in issuing more digital currencies which could potentially trigger higher inflation.
  • User adoption: User adoption could also pose a major setback for the smooth roll out of the CBDC in India. The main challenges would always be user adoption and security.
  • Reduced savings: Many, including various central bankers, fear that people may begin withdrawing money from their bank accounts as digital currencies issued by Central banks become more popular.
  • Volatility: the risk is higher and there is more price volatility and lesser acceptance as a money instrument globally, unless the trust factor and investor protection factors change.

Way forward

  • The launch of CBDCs may not be a smooth affair and still requires more clarity in India. There are still a lot of misconceptions about the concept of digital currency in the country.
  • The effectiveness of CBDCs will depend on aspects such as privacy design and programmability.
  • There is a huge opportunity for India to take a lead globally via a large-scale rollout and adoption of digital currencies.

Conclusion

  • RBI is creating small pivot for experimenting CBDC where financial transaction is happening through digital currency.
  • CBDC has to be a gradual process, various nuances has to be taken care not only about its utilization but also about the impact it will make.
  • More clarity on the concept in the days to come will be the key for CBDCs and much will depend on how the whole concept will evolve in India which is predominantly a paper currency market.
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RSTV Archive Yojana/RSTV

[RSTV Archive] Carbon Border Tax: Why is India opposing it

The two-day G-20 ministerial meeting on environment and climate change in Italy are expected to raise their concerns over the European Union’s recent proposal on the first of its kind carbon border tax.

Under this proposal, the 27 EU nations will impose a border tax on imports of carbon-intensive goods.  Yet to be legally formalized, the tax plan could come into force from 2026.

So, what exactly is a carbon border tax? Why do developed countries want to impose such a tariff and why are developing nations opposed to the idea?

What is Carbon Pricing?

  • Carbon pricing is an approach to reducing carbon emissions that uses market mechanisms to pass the cost of emitting to emitters.
  • Its goal is to discourage the use of fossil fuels, address the causes of the climate crisis and meet national and international agreements.
  • Well-designed carbon pricing can change the behavior of consumers, businesses and investors while encouraging technological innovation and generating revenue that can be used productively.
  • There are a few carbon pricing instruments, such as a carbon tax and cap-and-trade programmes.

What is Carbon Border Tax?

  • A carbon border tax (CBT) is a tax on carbon emissions attributed to imported goods that have not been carbon-taxed at source.
  • The carbon border tax proposal is part of the European Commission’s European Green Deal that endeavours to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. 

Objective:

  • To ‘incentivize’ greener manufacturing around the world and create parity with European manufacturers who are already subjected to substantial carbon levies.

A move to benefit local EU manufacturers

The carbon border tax has wide appeal in Europe. It is supported by the new president of the European Commission.

  • A carbon border tax is able to protect a country’s local manufacturers, motivating them to adhere to green regulations.
  • Many EU companies are at a cost disadvantage as they have been paying a carbon border tax and for carbon emissions since 2005 under the EU’s Emissions Trading System.
  • The new carbon border tax can therefore lead to a more level playing field against importers, especially those from nations with more lax environmental standards.

What could the new proposal mean politically?

  • Notably, China’s continuing reliance on non-renewable energy to power its economy leaves it particularly vulnerable in this matter.
  • For example, given that China produces steel with blast furnaces that release a large amount of carbon, it will have to pay an additional layer of carbon border tax, which will increase its costs and its market price.
  • This will consequently reduce the competitiveness of steel produced in China, compared to steel from other countries that is made in more carbon-efficient mills that do not have to pay this additional tax.

This suggests that the carbon border tax is also politically preferable to Europe as it slows down the gradually rising economy in China, and would therefore preserve the European countries’ competitiveness. 

The BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) countries’ grouping had opposed the EU’s proposal.

How does this impact India?

  • As India’s third largest trading partner, the EU accounted for €62.8 billion ($74.5 billion) worth of trade in goods in 2020, or 11.1% of India’s total global trade.
  • India’s exports to the EU were worth $41.36 billion in 2020-21, as per data from the commerce ministry.
  • The CBT would cover energy-intensive sectors such as cement, steel, aluminium, oil refinery, paper, glass, chemicals as well as the power sector.
  • By increasing the prices of Indian-made goods in the EU, this tax would make Indian goods less attractive for buyers and could shrink demand.
  • Sadly, India’s many ‘self-reliance’ tariffs are also a contributor to this.

Issues with CBT

  • Impact on trade: The degree of impact on industrial sectors would be largely influenced by two factors: carbon intensity and trade intensity.
  • Altering competitiveness: For companies, it will raise the administrative burden of crossing borders and increase trade frictions, especially for small businesses. That will inevitably reduce choice and raise costs for consumers.
  • Promoting protectionism: The carbon tax may end up being protectionist, and will hit emerging economies like India hard.
  • Unfair practices under WTO: Depending on their design they could fall foul of WTO measures designed to prevent importing countries from discriminating against particular exporting countries.
  • A violation of Paris Accord: CBT compels developing countries to pay the same price as the developed countries to climate change. The EU is essentially bypassing the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ that should guide international climate action.

Way forward

  • Carbon taxing is just one way of holding large emitters accountable for their role in harming the environment.
  • However, fundamental changes can’t be forced by tariffs.
  • If the planet is to have any hope of meeting the Paris Agreement goals, drastic measures that consider both the economic and social wellbeing of nations’ inhabitants must be taken.
  • This should take all nations into confidence than imposing such overnight tariffs.
  • It is no doubt that India must be in the forefront in climate politics. But it must also be cautious about the negotiations in global laws to protect domestic interests.
Categories
Burning Issues

[Burning Issue] Coercive Population policy and related issues

In recent years, there have been ongoing debates, campaigns, and demands for the implementation of coercive population control policies in India. Evidence shows no effectiveness of policy measures enforcing a two-child or one-child norm and instead highlights their adverse outcomes. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) – 4 revealed that 24 states in the country have already achieved replacement level fertility of 2.1, which means that couples are increasingly choosing to have two children.

India’s declining fertility can largely be attributed to key determinants like the increasing emphasis on women’s education and their participation in the labor force.

Let us look at the future prospectus of population growth and related government policies and measures in India.

What are the causes of Over Population in India?

The two main common causes leading to overpopulation in India are:

(1) The birth rate is still higher than the death rate. We have been successful in declining the death rates but the same cannot be said for birth rates.

(2) The fertility rate due to the population policies and other measures has been falling but even then it is much higher compared to other countries.

Various social issues which are leading to overpopulation

  • Early Marriage and Universal Marriage System: Even though the marriageable age of a girl is legally 18 years, the concept of early marriage still prevails. Getting married at a young age prolongs the child bearing age.
  • Poverty and Illiteracy: Impoverished families have this notion that more the number of members in the family, more will be the numbers to earn income. Some feel that more children are needed to look after them in their old age. Indian still lags behind the use of contraceptives and birth control methods and are not willing to discuss or are totally unaware about them.
  • Age old cultural norm: Sons are the bread earners of the families in India. This age old thought puts considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born.
  • Illegal migration: Last but not the least, we cannot ignore the fact that illegal migration is continuously taking place from Bangladesh and Nepal is leading to increased population density.

What are the effects of over-population?

Some major impacts of the high population are as follows:

Population Policy by Uttar Pradesh government

Recently, the government of Uttar Pradesh released a “Population Policy” in which it stated its intention to bring the gross fertility rate in the State down from the existing 2.7 to 2.1 by 2026.

What are the provisions in the Bill?

  • This draft law, titled the Uttar Pradesh Population (Control, Stabilization and Welfare) Bill, 2021, seeks to provide a series of incentives to families that adhere to a two-child norm.
  • The Bill also intends on disentitling families that breach the norm from benefits and subsidies.
  • It promises public servants who undergo sterilization and adopt a two-child norm several benefits.
  • The draft Bill also contains a list of punishments.
  • A person who breaches the two-child norm will be debarred from securing the benefit of any government-sponsored welfare scheme and will be disqualified from applying to any State government job.
  • Existing government employees who infringe the rule will be denied the benefit of promotion.
  • Transgressing individuals will be prohibited from contesting elections to local authorities and bodies.

Issues with coercive population control policies

With such types of coercive population policies, there come a number of issues associated with them. Let us look at some issues in context with India.

(1) Counter-productive measure

  • International experience shows that any coercion to have a certain number of children is counter-productive and leads to demographic distortions.

(2) Against international obligations

  • India is committed to its obligations under international law, including the principles contained in the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action, 1994.
  • Foremost in those principles was a pledge from nations that they would look beyond demographic targets and focus instead on guaranteeing a right to reproductive freedom.

(3) Against the right to reproductive freedom and privacy

  • In Suchita Srivastava & Anr vs Chandigarh Administration (2009), the Court found that a woman’s freedom to make reproductive decisions is an integral facet of the right to personal liberty guaranteed by Article 21.
  • This ruling was endorsed by the Supreme Court’s nine-judge Bench verdict in K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India (2017).
  • The Constitution sees a person’s autonomy over her body as an extension of the right to privacy. U.P.’s draft law, if enacted, will grossly impinge on the right to reproductive freedom.
  • However, In Javed & Ors vs State of Haryana & Ors (2003), the Court upheld a law that disqualified persons with more than two children from contesting in local body elections.
  • But the present UP Bill is far more disproportionate; therefore, the judgment in Javed can no longer be seen as good law.
  • The UP government will likely argue that there is no violation of privacy here because any decision on sterilization would be voluntary. But, as we know, making welfare conditional is a hallmark of coercion.
  • Therefore, the proposed law will fall foul of a proportionality analysis.

(4) Sex-selective practices and forced sterilizations

  • The Economic Survey of 2018 points out that ‘son meta preference’ – the desire to have a male child – has resulted in 21 million “unwanted girls” in India.
  • Imposing a two child norm will add to the burden on women, by way of sex selective practices and forced sterilizations.
  • In Devika Biswas vs Union of India (2016), the Court pointed to how these camps invariably have a disparate impact on minorities and other vulnerable groups.
  • This could result in a setback to population stabilization efforts, as it happened during the emergency period in mid-1970s

(5) Violation of human rights

  • A population control policy is not only a gross violation of fundamental human rights but will also have the maximum impact on the poorest, weakest and most marginalized sections of a country.
  • The National Population Policy, 2000 had “voluntary and informed choice and consent of citizens while availing reproductive health care services, and continuation of the target-free approach in administering family planning services”.
  • A coercive population control measure would be in direct contradiction to the tenets of this policy.

(6) Impact poor and marginalized people adversely

  • Disincentives through denial of benefits under subsidized food grains through the PDS will impact the poorest and most marginalized sections of the population and worsen their impoverishment.

(7) High population is not always bad

  • A high population is not necessarily a bad thing for the economy.
  • Population controlling measures will result in:
    • There would simply not be enough people to work for the economy,
    • A large non-productive aging population to support and the government may not have enough resources to support pensions
    • This would lead to de-industrialization.

(8) Factor of religion

  • Religious polarization makes population control an even more contentious issue in India.
  • The bogey of population explosion is often used (directly or indirectly) to target a particular minority in India. The population controlling measure will impact social harmony.

China’s experience

China’s infamous one-child-per-couple policy and the subsequent two-child policy in 2015, have had several unintended consequences ranging from forced sterilizations and abortions to the abandonment of girl children, falling birth rates, skewed sex ratios, a rapidly growing ageing population, and a shrinking workforce.

What did we learn from our past experiences?

  • The implementation of a one-child or two-child policy law will not result in immediate population reduction.
  • Past trends in fertility and mortality from 1951 to 1981 have shaped the Indian population structure in such a way that there is a ‘bulge’ in the proportion of people in their prime reproductive age.
  • This group accounts for 53% of India’s population today. Even if this group were to produce fewer children compared to previous generations, there will still be an increase in the absolute number of people.
  • This pattern of growth is termed as “Population Momentum”. Approximately 70 percent of the total projected population increase today is due to this large young population in their childbearing years.
  • India with its large proportion of young persons will take some time before the results of declining fertility start showing explicitly.
  • The population of India in 1951 was 35 crore, but by 2011, it had increased to 121 crore. There have been few shortcomings.
    • Firstly, the NPP have a narrow perspective; give much importance to contraception and sterilization. The basic prerequisite of controlling population includes poverty alleviation, improving the standards of living and the spread of education.
    • Secondly, on national scale the policy was not publicized and failed to generate mass support in favor of population control.
    • Thirdly, we have insufficient infrastructure owing to the lack of trained staff, lack of adequate aptitude among the staff and limited use or misuse of the equipment for population control resulted in failure of the policy.
    • Lastly, the use of coercion during the Emergency (1976-77) caused a serious resentment among the masses. This made the very NPP itself very unpopular.

Way forward

  • Increasing the welfare and status of women and girls, spread of education, increasing awareness for the use of contraceptives and family planning methods, sex education, encouraging male sterilization and spacing births, free distribution of contraceptives and condoms among the poor, encouraging female empowerment, more health care centers for the poor, to name a few, can play a major role in controlling population.
  • The government should raise budgetary allocations in order to ensure expanded contraceptive choices for delaying and spacing births and better access and quality of health care for young people.
  • Social Measures: Population outburst is considered to be a social problem and it is intensely rooted in the civilization. It is therefore necessary to make efforts to eliminate the social iniquities in the country.
  • Minimum age of Marriage: As fertility depends on the age of marriage therefore the minimum age of marriage should be raised. In India minimum age for marriage is 21 years for men and 18 years for women fixed by law. This law should be strongly implemented and people should also be made aware of this through promotion.
  • Raising the Status of Women: There are prevalent biases to women. They are restricted to house. They are still confined to rearing and bearing of children. So women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically. Free education should be given to them.
  • Spread education: The spread of education changes the views of people. The educated men take mature decisions and prefer to delay marriage and adopt small family custom. Educated women are health mindful and avoid frequent pregnancies and thus help in lowering birth rate.
  • Adoption: is also effective way to curb population. Some parents do not have any child, despite expensive medical treatment. It is recommended that they should adopt orphan children. It will be helpful to orphan children and children to couples.
  • Social Security: is necessary for people. It is responsibility of government to include more and more people under-social security schemes. So that they do not depend upon others in the event of old age, sickness, unemployment with these facilities they will have no desire for more children.
  • Economic Measures: Government must devise policies for more employment opportunities and development of Agriculture and Industry. When their income is increased they would enhance their standard of living and accept small family norms.
  • Urbanization: This can reduce population increase. It is reported that people in urban areas have low birth rate than those living in rural areas.
Categories
Burning Issues

[Burning Issue] Whatsapp snooping with Pegasus Spyware

A global collaborative investigative project has discovered Israeli spyware Pegasus was used to target thousands of people across the world.

In India, at least 300 people are believed to have been targeted, including two serving Ministers in the government, three Opposition leaders, several journalists, social activists and business persons.

What is Pegasus?

  • All spyware do what the name suggests — they spy on people through their phones.
  • Pegasus works by sending an exploit link, and if the target user clicks on the link, the malware or the code that allows the surveillance is installed on the user’s phone.
  • A presumably newer version of the malware does not even require a target user to click a link.
  • Once Pegasus is installed, the attacker has complete access to the target user’s phone.
  • A worrying aspect that has been revealed is the ability of the spyware to infect a device by a ‘zero-click’ attack, which does not require any action from the phone’s user.

A ‘Black Hole’ with no escape

  • What makes Pegasus really dangerous is that it spares no aspect of a person’s identity.
  • It makes older techniques of spying seem relatively harmless.
  • It can intercept every call and SMS, read every email and monitor each messaging app.
  • Pegasus can also control the phone’s camera and microphone and has access to the device’s location data.
  • The app advertises that it can carry out “file retrieval”, which means it could access any document that a target might have stored on their phone.

Dysfunctions created by Pegasus

Privacy breach: The very existence of a surveillance system, whether under a provision of law or without it, impacts the right to privacy under Article 21 and the exercise of free speech under Article 19.

Curbing Dissent: It reflects a disturbing trend with regard to the use of hacking software against dissidents and adversaries. In 2019 also, Pegasus software was used to hack into HR & Dalit activists.

Individual safety: In the absence of privacy, the safety of journalists, especially those whose work criticizes the government, and the personal safety of their sources is jeopardised.

Self-Censorship: Consistent fear over espionage may grapple individuals. This may impact their ability to express, receive and discuss such ideas.

State-sponsored mass surveillance: The spyware coupled with AI can manipulate digital content in users’ smartphones. This in turn can polarize their opinion by distant controller.

National security: The potential misuse or proliferation has the same, if not more, ramifications as advanced nuclear technology falling into the wrong hands.

Snooping in India:  Legality check

For Pegasus-like spyware to be used lawfully, the government would have to invoke both the IT Act and the Telegraph Act. Communication surveillance in India takes place primarily under two laws:

  1. Telegraph Act, 1885: It deals with interception of calls.
  2. Information Technology Act, 2000: It was enacted to deal with surveillance of all electronic communication, following the Supreme Court’s intervention in 1996.

Cyber security safeguards in India

  • National Cyber Security Policy: The policy was developed in 2013 to build secure and resilient cyberspace for India’s citizens and businesses.
  • Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In): The CERT-In is responsible for incident responses including analysis, forecasts and alerts on cybersecurity issues and breaches.
  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C): The Central Government has rolled out a scheme for the establishment of the I4C to handle issues related to cybercrime in the country in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.
  • Budapest Convention: There also exists Budapest Convention on Cybercrime. However India is not a signatory to this convention.

The bigger question: Government Involvement

It is worth asking why the government would need to hack phones and install spyware when existing laws already offer impunity for surveillance. The wide array of victims clearly brings the central government and its role to question.

In the absence of parliamentary or judicial oversight, electronic surveillance gives the executive the power to influence both the subject of surveillance and all classes of individuals, resulting in a chilling effect on free speech.

Is Right to Privacy a myth?

  • Only in such exceptional circumstances, however, can an individual’s right to privacy be superseded to protect the national interest.
  • In today’s times, when fake news and illegal activities such as cyber terrorism on the dark web are on the rise, the importance of reserving such powers to conduct surveillance cannot be undermined.

What should be the basis for surveillance?

The existing provisions are insufficient to protect against the spread of authoritarianism since they allow the executive to exercise a disproportionate amount of power.

  • There should be some reasonable basis or some tangible evidence to initiate or seek approval for interception by State authorities.
  • Any action without such evidence or basis would be struck down by courts as arbitrary, or invasive of one’s right to privacy.
  • Any digression from the ethical and legal parameters set by law would be tantamount to a deliberate invasion of citizens’ privacy and make India a surveillance state.

Solution lies in Judicial Oversight

Surveillance reform is the need of the hour in India.

  • The need for judicial oversight over surveillance systems in general, and judicial investigation into the Pegasus hacking in particular is very essential.
  • Only the judiciary can be competent to decide whether specific instances of surveillance are proportionate, whether less onerous alternatives are available, and to balance the necessity of the government’s objectives with the rights of the impacted individuals.
  • Not only are existing protections weak but the proposed legislation related to the personal data protection fails to consider surveillance while also providing wide exemptions to government.

Way forward

  • The security of a device becomes one of the fundamental bedrocks of maintaining user trust as society becomes more and more digitized.
  • There is an urgent need to take up this issue seriously by constituting an independent high-level inquiry with credible members and experts that can restore confidence and conduct its proceedings transparently.

Conclusion

  • We must recognize that national security starts with securing the smartphones of every single Indian by embracing technologies such as encryption rather than deploying spyware.
  • This is a core part of our fundamental right to privacy.
  • This intrusion by spyware is not merely an infringement of the rights of the citizens of the country but also a worrying development for India’s national security apparatus.

References:

https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/surveillance-reform-is-the-need-of-the-hour/article35414371.ece

https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/tech-news-technology/project-pegasus-experts-fears-apple-android-duopoly-making-life-easier-for-spyware-a-losing-battle-for-users-7413430/

https://www.thequint.com/news/india/pegasus-spyware-malware-attack-nso-group-cyber-security-bjp-india-whatsapp

Categories
RSTV Archive Yojana/RSTV

[RSTV Archive] Marine Aids to Navigation Bill, 2021

The government has introduced the Marine Aids to Navigation Bill, 2021 in the Rajya Sabha to replace a nine-decade-old law to pave the way for shifting from lighthouses to modern aids for marine navigation.  Lok Sabha passed the Bill in March this year.

In this article, we shall study the salient features, its application, the changes the bill would bring about in marine navigation.

Marine Aids to Navigation Bill, 2021

  • The Bill repeals the Lighthouse Act, 1927 and seeks to provide a framework for the development, maintenance, and management of aids to navigation in India.
  • Key features of the Bill include:

Application:

  • The Bill applies to the whole of India including various maritime zones including territorial waters, continental shelf, and exclusive economic zone.

Aid to navigation:

  • The Bill defines aid to navigation as a device, system, or service, external to the vessels designed and operated to enhance the safety and efficiency of navigation of vessels and vessel traffic. 
  • A vessel includes a ship, boat, sailing vessel, fishing vessel, submersible, and mobile offshore drilling units.
  • Vessel traffic service is defined as a service to improve the safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and protect the environment.

Director-General of Aids to Navigation:

  • The Bill provides that the central government will appoint: (i) a Director General, (ii) Deputy Director Generals, and (iii) Directors for districts (which the centre may demarcate). 
  • The Director General will advise the central government on matters related to aids to navigation, among others.

Central Advisory Committee:

  • The central government may appoint a Central Advisory Committee (CAC) consisting of persons representing the interests affected by the Bill, or having special knowledge of the sector. 
  • The government may consult the CAC on matters including: (i) establishment of aids to navigation, (ii) additions, alteration, or removal of, any such aids, (iii) cost of any proposal relating to such aids.
  • Further, the CAC may also appoint sub-committees for additional advice on these matters.

Management of General Aids: 

  • The central government will be responsible for the development, maintenance, and management of all general aids to navigation and vessel traffic services.
  • Its powers with regard to management of aids to navigation include: (i) establishing, maintaining, adding, altering, or removing any aid to navigation, (ii) authorising to inspect any such aid which may affect the safety of navigation, and (iii) acquiring any land as may be necessary.

Training and certification:

  • The Bill provides that no person shall be allowed to operate on any aid to navigation (including any ancillary activities), or any vessel traffic service in any place unless he holds a valid training certificate. 
  • The central government will accredit training organizations for imparting training to, or conduct assessments of, persons in the operation of aids to navigation and vessel traffic services.

Levy of marine aids to navigation dues:

  • The Bill provides that marine aids to navigation dues will be levied and collected for every ship arriving at or departing from any port in India, at the rate specified by the central government from time to time. 
  • The central government may wholly or partially exempt certain vessels from these dues. 
  • These vessels include: (i) any government ship, which is not carrying cargo or passengers for freight or fares, or (ii) any other ship, classes of ships, or ships performing specified voyages.
  • Any dispute related to the marine aids to navigation dues, expenses, or costs, will be heard and determined by a civil court having jurisdiction at the place where the dispute arose.

 Heritage Lighthouse:

  • The central government may designate any aid to navigation under its control as a heritage lighthouse. 
  • In addition to their function as aids to navigation, such lighthouses will be developed for educational, cultural, and tourism purposes.

Why was such bill needed?

  • India has a long coastline. There are radar beacons, GPS Navigation system to guide a ship for proper directing  of the ship.
  • In India there are 18 light houses which are more than 75 years old.
  • There are light house districts where safe navigation is provided. Cost of Maintaining of these Light houses is also very high.
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c) They provide the important study material so that the student doesn’t feel lost. 

d) They provide regular feedback to students to help them remain focused.

We believe that students should have strong strategies that are tried and tested, and our experienced mentors customise these strategies for each student.

4) Managing Current Affairs: 

Current Affairs is the heart and soul of UPSC preparation. But there is so much news every day that it becomes difficult for the student to cope. That is why we tie Current Affairs with static knowledge and share it with students. This makes it easy for students to remember important details and score more in the exam.

You can also practice reading newspapers daily and making notes. This will keep you updated. And you can always receive the Current Affairs study material from us in consolidated form for quick revision.

5) Choosing Optionals:

This is what topper do when choosing optional:

a) They narrow down the subjects to 3-4 options based on their background.

b) They go through the syllabus thoroughly before making a decision.

c) They also analyse the previous years’ question papers to understand the pattern.

d) They consult with their mentors to develop a study plan that could work.

Speaking with a mentor is highly helpful in making this decision because they keep analysing the exam pattern. The mentors know what kind of questions may come and how to study for them. Having an experienced guiding hand for optionals can take your preparation to the next level.

6) Writing Practice 

Answer-writing practice and essay writing practice is a must for any candidate. But the most important thing is getting feedback and evaluation.

a) Getting feedback from the beginning will help you practice the best way of writing answers.

b) Getting your essays evaluated will help you avoid making mistakes.

c) Getting the right guidance can save you a lot of effort.

Starting with the right guidance can help you avoid mistakes and save you a lot of time.  Why waste time doing things that don’t work and why not start with the right guidance itself? 

7) Getting The Right Guidance 

Do not waste your time and energy in reinventing the wheel! 

It is important to engage with someone who understands your needs. Experienced mentors know the common mistakes that students make, they understand how overwhelming this experience can be. The mentors know how much time and effort goes into the right preparation. And they know how to help students in all these situations.

The best thing to do is to get in touch with a mentor who can help you avoid making mistakes and guide you to the right preparation techniques.

This is why our programs are designed to help students at each stage of their preparation.  Any problem you face, you can speak with us and we will find a solution for you. We believe in working with our students and providing the guidance that can make your dream come true!

Categories
Announcements

How To Start Preparation For IAS Exam – A Complete Guide To UPSC Civil Services Exam for Beginners & Working Professionals || Fill Registration form and get a Personalised Timetable till Prelims 2022 & Initial Study Material to begin Preparation

Key Takeaways:

  1. Civilsdaily Monthly Magazine (Latest Two Months)
  2. Mentorship Call for Personlised Daily Timetable
  3. Beginners Guide / All Important sample Videos and Notes
  4. PDFs of Important Go-To Subjects to Begin with.

UPSC Civil Services Exam for the recruitment of IAS, IFS, IRS and 21 other services is one of the most difficult exams in India. More than 10 Lakh aspirants give the UPSC exam every year making the exam competitive. But that does not mean YOU cannot crack it!

Here’s what you need to know before you start preparing for UPSC Exam.

FACT: UPSC Civil Service exam requires Hard Work + Strategy + Guidance This is the Holy Trinity that will help you become an IAS officer. 

So, how do you start?

1) The UPSC Exam Schedule: 

UPSC exam is held in 3 stages – Prelims, Mains, And Interview. Prelims are based on objective questions, Mains is subjective, and Interview is a personality test. Fortunately, you can prepare for these stages together and online!

2) Understanding the syllabus: 

UPSC exam has a vast syllabus. It is important to know the scope of preparation before you start preparing for the exam. Here are some of the questions you need to ask yourself:

a) What are the scope and the nature of the syllabus?

b) What to study and what not to study?

c) What is the question pattern?

d) What are your weak areas and what are your strengths?

e) What kind of guidance will you need? Etc.

Our guidance program, for example, helps students understand the syllabus and develop a  strategy around it. The mentors at Civils Daily handhold the candidates and guide them at each step. They explain to the students about the Dos and Don’ts of the exam and train them how to develop a good study pattern.

3) Developing a Smart Strategy: 

Developing a strategy that delivers results is very important for this exam. We believe that every student learns at their own pace and each student should have a personal study plan that suits their learning curve.

This is why our mentors do the following:

a) They assess the students and understand their requirements.

b) They develop a study plan for the students that match their learning abilities.

c) They provide the important study material so that the student doesn’t feel lost. 

d) They provide regular feedback to students to help them remain focused.

We believe that students should have strong strategies that are tried and tested, and our experienced mentors customise these strategies for each student.

4) Managing Current Affairs: 

Current Affairs is the heart and soul of UPSC preparation. But there is so much news every day that it becomes difficult for the student to cope. That is why we tie Current Affairs with static knowledge and share it with students. This makes it easy for students to remember important details and score more in the exam.

You can also practice reading newspapers daily and making notes. This will keep you updated. And you can always receive the Current Affairs study material from us in consolidated form for quick revision.

5) Choosing Optionals:

This is what topper do when choosing optional:

a) They narrow down the subjects to 3-4 options based on their background.

b) They go through the syllabus thoroughly before making a decision.

c) They also analyse the previous years’ question papers to understand the pattern.

d) They consult with their mentors to develop a study plan that could work.

Speaking with a mentor is highly helpful in making this decision because they keep analysing the exam pattern. The mentors know what kind of questions may come and how to study for them. Having an experienced guiding hand for optionals can take your preparation to the next level.

6) Writing Practice 

Answer-writing practice and essay writing practice is a must for any candidate. But the most important thing is getting feedback and evaluation.

a) Getting feedback from the beginning will help you practice the best way of writing answers.

b) Getting your essays evaluated will help you avoid making mistakes.

c) Getting the right guidance can save you a lot of effort.

Starting with the right guidance can help you avoid mistakes and save you a lot of time.  Why waste time doing things that don’t work and why not start with the right guidance itself? 

7) Getting The Right Guidance 

Do not waste your time and energy in reinventing the wheel! 

It is important to engage with someone who understands your needs. Experienced mentors know the common mistakes that students make, they understand how overwhelming this experience can be. The mentors know how much time and effort goes into the right preparation. And they know how to help students in all these situations.

The best thing to do is to get in touch with a mentor who can help you avoid making mistakes and guide you to the right preparation techniques.

This is why our programs are designed to help students at each stage of their preparation.  Any problem you face, you can speak with us and we will find a solution for you. We believe in working with our students and providing the guidance that can make your dream come true!

Categories
Yojana/RSTV

[Yojana Archive] The Pandemic & Global Synergy

June 2021

Context

  • The notion of correlation between various countries characterized by interconnectedness played an important role in the proliferation of the COVID.
  • India’s vaccine diplomacy provides the scope to reflect its cultural values imbued with democratic ethos, cooperation, humanity, development and compassion.
  • It is coupled with the vision of India as a responsible global player deserving the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) permanent membership.
  • India assumes a significant position in the global supply chain of the vaccine due to its time-tested production capabilities and being the world’s largest producer of vaccines.

Vaccines and India

  • India’s Covid-19 vaccines are the cheapest in the world with two frontrunners; “Covishield” developed by the Serum Institute of India and the “Covaxin” developed by the collaboration of ICMR and NIV with Bharat Biotech (Mondal, 2021).
  • A third vaccine, Russia’s Sputnik V has been approved for emergency use in India by Drugs Controller General of India (DGCI).
  • The local production of Sputnik V will begin in July 2021 and Hyderabad-based Dr Reddy’s Laboratories will manufacture the vaccine in India.

India’s vaccine diplomacy

  • India has supplied vaccines to nations including Bhutan, Maldives, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar, Mauritius, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, the UAE, Brazil, Morocco, Bahrain, Oman, Egypt, Algeria, Kuwait, and South Africa.
  • Supplies made under grant amount to 56 lakh doses and commercial supplies amounting to over 100 lakh doses.
  • Indian vaccines have reached Afghanistan and also it is reaching the shores of CARICOM countries in the Caribbean, Pacific Island States, Nicaragua etc.
  • India’s ubiquitous vaccine delivery programme to the rest of the world is situated within the framework of Vaccine Maitri which is quite synonymous with the SAGAR doctrine of India.
  • This gives legitimacy to India’s vaccine efforts further.

Why need vaccine diplomacy?

  • The aspect of health is central to welfare.
  • Such centrality when disrupted or threatened creates a humongous clamor for instant relief; in this case such action was observed in the pursuit for a vaccine to end this interlude.
  • The field of vaccine development cuts across the national boundaries.
  • This was witnessed in the various collaborative international efforts between various manufacturing companies and laboratories engaged in research.

India’s efforts

  • The launch of India’s vaccine outreach initiative known as “Vaccine Maitri” demonstrates India’s concern to bring down the curve of the pandemic as a powerful booster to economic recovery prospect.
  • In this context, the recognition is earned as Indian vaccines reflected her pool of scientific skill and professionalism.
  • Besides, India assumes a significant position in the global supply chain of the vaccine due to its time-tested production capabilities and being the world’s largest producer of vaccines.

Significance of India’s vaccine diplomacy

  • This can be understood if we take into account the nature of action of the developed countries which shows their propensity to reserve doses much beyond the need of their population.
  • The situation of the developing countries, on the contrary, is messy because majority of people in the developing and poor countries could remain unprotected if they cannot afford to pay for the vaccine.
  • Put in this perspective, the nobility of India’s moves stands upon her commitment to share her mastery.
  • India has shared its vaccines with all fellow countries not only those situated in South Asia but also to different countries of the Middle East to Africa and beyond.

It is undoubtedly a great achievement so far as the domain of our foreign policy and soft power are concerned.

Utility of vaccine diplomacy

  • Sometimes we can get the outcomes we want without tangible threats or payoffs. This is what is called “second face of power”.
  • A country may obtain the outcomes it wants in world politics because other countries—admiring its values, emulating its example, aspiring to its level of prosperity and openness— want to follow it.
  • Vaccine diplomacy as the nomenclature to define this phenomenon, bends towards the soft power perspective.
  • Soft power rests on the ability to shape the preferences of others.

Reflecting India’s wisdom

  • Vaccine diplomacy provides India with the scope to reflect its cultural values imbued with democratic ethos, cooperation, humanity, development and compassion.
  • The idea of compassion and generosity are a distinct hallmark of Indian wisdom which is engraved both within the domestic public space as well as its institutions.

Benefits reaped

  • In today’s world heavily loaded by hard power there is no gainsaying the fact that our dependence on soft power potentialities cannot be absolute.
  • Nevertheless, to succeed in world politics; the path that India adopts with regard to her vaccine diplomacy provides her with unique advantage.
  • For instance, India’s well-positioned stature in terms of vaccine manufacturing has been recognised by Canadian PM, Justin Trudeau.

Way forward

  • Diplomacy is all about the conduct of international relations with other countries based on certain parameters of connectedness and cooperation.
  • It is worth noting that India’s first supply of vaccine dosage went to Bhutan and Maldives, these two countries being India’s closest ally in the South Asian region.
  • India should follow a preferential and prudential line of judgement when it comes to vaccine distribution.
  • Being generous is a great virtue but generosity should be backed by judicious calculation.
Categories
Announcements

How To Start Preparation For IAS Exam – A Complete Guide To UPSC Civil Services Exam for Beginners & Working Professionals || Fill Registration form and get a Personalised Timetable till Prelims 2022 & Initial Study Material to begin Preparation

Key Takeaways:

  1. Civilsdaily Monthly Magazine (Latest Two Months)
  2. Mentorship Call for Personlised Daily Timetable
  3. Beginners Guide / All Important sample Videos and Notes
  4. PDFs of Important Go-To Subjects to Begin with.

UPSC Civil Services Exam for the recruitment of IAS, IFS, IRS and 21 other services is one of the most difficult exams in India. More than 10 Lakh aspirants give the UPSC exam every year making the exam competitive. But that does not mean YOU cannot crack it!

Here’s what you need to know before you start preparing for UPSC Exam.

FACT: UPSC Civil Service exam requires Hard Work + Strategy + Guidance This is the Holy Trinity that will help you become an IAS officer. 

So, how do you start?

1) The UPSC Exam Schedule: 

UPSC exam is held in 3 stages – Prelims, Mains, And Interview. Prelims are based on objective questions, Mains is subjective, and Interview is a personality test. Fortunately, you can prepare for these stages together and online!

2) Understanding the syllabus: 

UPSC exam has a vast syllabus. It is important to know the scope of preparation before you start preparing for the exam. Here are some of the questions you need to ask yourself:

a) What are the scope and the nature of the syllabus?

b) What to study and what not to study?

c) What is the question pattern?

d) What are your weak areas and what are your strengths?

e) What kind of guidance will you need? Etc.

Our guidance program, for example, helps students understand the syllabus and develop a  strategy around it. The mentors at Civils Daily handhold the candidates and guide them at each step. They explain to the students about the Dos and Don’ts of the exam and train them how to develop a good study pattern.

3) Developing a Smart Strategy: 

Developing a strategy that delivers results is very important for this exam. We believe that every student learns at their own pace and each student should have a personal study plan that suits their learning curve.

This is why our mentors do the following:

a) They assess the students and understand their requirements.

b) They develop a study plan for the students that match their learning abilities.

c) They provide the important study material so that the student doesn’t feel lost. 

d) They provide regular feedback to students to help them remain focused.

We believe that students should have strong strategies that are tried and tested, and our experienced mentors customise these strategies for each student.

4) Managing Current Affairs: 

Current Affairs is the heart and soul of UPSC preparation. But there is so much news every day that it becomes difficult for the student to cope. That is why we tie Current Affairs with static knowledge and share it with students. This makes it easy for students to remember important details and score more in the exam.

You can also practice reading newspapers daily and making notes. This will keep you updated. And you can always receive the Current Affairs study material from us in consolidated form for quick revision.

5) Choosing Optionals:

This is what topper do when choosing optional:

a) They narrow down the subjects to 3-4 options based on their background.

b) They go through the syllabus thoroughly before making a decision.

c) They also analyse the previous years’ question papers to understand the pattern.

d) They consult with their mentors to develop a study plan that could work.

Speaking with a mentor is highly helpful in making this decision because they keep analysing the exam pattern. The mentors know what kind of questions may come and how to study for them. Having an experienced guiding hand for optionals can take your preparation to the next level.

6) Writing Practice 

Answer-writing practice and essay writing practice is a must for any candidate. But the most important thing is getting feedback and evaluation.

a) Getting feedback from the beginning will help you practice the best way of writing answers.

b) Getting your essays evaluated will help you avoid making mistakes.

c) Getting the right guidance can save you a lot of effort.

Starting with the right guidance can help you avoid mistakes and save you a lot of time.  Why waste time doing things that don’t work and why not start with the right guidance itself? 

7) Getting The Right Guidance 

Do not waste your time and energy in reinventing the wheel! 

It is important to engage with someone who understands your needs. Experienced mentors know the common mistakes that students make, they understand how overwhelming this experience can be. The mentors know how much time and effort goes into the right preparation. And they know how to help students in all these situations.

The best thing to do is to get in touch with a mentor who can help you avoid making mistakes and guide you to the right preparation techniques.

This is why our programs are designed to help students at each stage of their preparation.  Any problem you face, you can speak with us and we will find a solution for you. We believe in working with our students and providing the guidance that can make your dream come true!

Categories
Announcements

Registration Closing at 12 Noon || How To Start Preparation For IAS Exam – A Complete Guide To UPSC Civil Services Exam for Beginners & Working Professionals || Fill Registration form and get a Personalised Timetable till Prelims 2022 & Initial Study Material to begin Preparation

Key Takeaways:

  1. Civilsdaily Monthly Magazine (Latest Two Months)
  2. Mentorship Call for Personlised Daily Timetable
  3. Beginners Guide / All Important sample Videos and Notes
  4. PDFs of Important Go-To Subjects to Begin with.

UPSC Civil Services Exam for the recruitment of IAS, IFS, IRS and 21 other services is one of the most difficult exams in India. More than 10 Lakh aspirants give the UPSC exam every year making the exam competitive. But that does not mean YOU cannot crack it!

Here’s what you need to know before you start preparing for UPSC Exam.

FACT: UPSC Civil Service exam requires Hard Work + Strategy + Guidance This is the Holy Trinity that will help you become an IAS officer. 

So, how do you start?

1) The UPSC Exam Schedule: 

UPSC exam is held in 3 stages – Prelims, Mains, And Interview. Prelims are based on objective questions, Mains is subjective, and Interview is a personality test. Fortunately, you can prepare for these stages together and online!

2) Understanding the syllabus: 

UPSC exam has a vast syllabus. It is important to know the scope of preparation before you start preparing for the exam. Here are some of the questions you need to ask yourself:

a) What are the scope and the nature of the syllabus?

b) What to study and what not to study?

c) What is the question pattern?

d) What are your weak areas and what are your strengths?

e) What kind of guidance will you need? Etc.

Our guidance program, for example, helps students understand the syllabus and develop a  strategy around it. The mentors at Civils Daily handhold the candidates and guide them at each step. They explain to the students about the Dos and Don’ts of the exam and train them how to develop a good study pattern.

3) Developing a Smart Strategy: 

Developing a strategy that delivers results is very important for this exam. We believe that every student learns at their own pace and each student should have a personal study plan that suits their learning curve.

This is why our mentors do the following:

a) They assess the students and understand their requirements.

b) They develop a study plan for the students that match their learning abilities.

c) They provide the important study material so that the student doesn’t feel lost. 

d) They provide regular feedback to students to help them remain focused.

We believe that students should have strong strategies that are tried and tested, and our experienced mentors customise these strategies for each student.

4) Managing Current Affairs: 

Current Affairs is the heart and soul of UPSC preparation. But there is so much news every day that it becomes difficult for the student to cope. That is why we tie Current Affairs with static knowledge and share it with students. This makes it easy for students to remember important details and score more in the exam.

You can also practice reading newspapers daily and making notes. This will keep you updated. And you can always receive the Current Affairs study material from us in consolidated form for quick revision.

5) Choosing Optionals:

This is what topper do when choosing optional:

a) They narrow down the subjects to 3-4 options based on their background.

b) They go through the syllabus thoroughly before making a decision.

c) They also analyse the previous years’ question papers to understand the pattern.

d) They consult with their mentors to develop a study plan that could work.

Speaking with a mentor is highly helpful in making this decision because they keep analysing the exam pattern. The mentors know what kind of questions may come and how to study for them. Having an experienced guiding hand for optionals can take your preparation to the next level.

6) Writing Practice 

Answer-writing practice and essay writing practice is a must for any candidate. But the most important thing is getting feedback and evaluation.

a) Getting feedback from the beginning will help you practice the best way of writing answers.

b) Getting your essays evaluated will help you avoid making mistakes.

c) Getting the right guidance can save you a lot of effort.

Starting with the right guidance can help you avoid mistakes and save you a lot of time.  Why waste time doing things that don’t work and why not start with the right guidance itself? 

7) Getting The Right Guidance 

Do not waste your time and energy in reinventing the wheel! 

It is important to engage with someone who understands your needs. Experienced mentors know the common mistakes that students make, they understand how overwhelming this experience can be. The mentors know how much time and effort goes into the right preparation. And they know how to help students in all these situations.

The best thing to do is to get in touch with a mentor who can help you avoid making mistakes and guide you to the right preparation techniques.

This is why our programs are designed to help students at each stage of their preparation.  Any problem you face, you can speak with us and we will find a solution for you. We believe in working with our students and providing the guidance that can make your dream come true!

Categories
RSTV Archive Yojana/RSTV

[RSTV Archive] Drone Draft rules: Impetus to future tech

The Union Civil Aviation ministry has released the draft of the national drone policy, making it significantly easier for people and companies to own and operate drones, while also streamlining the certification process for manufacturers, importers and users.

Drones have been in the spotlight since such a device was used to target an Indian Air Force (IAF) base in Jammu with explosives last month.

In this article we will discuss and analyse all aspects of this issue.

Why such urgent promulgation?

  • Drones now form a significant new consumer tech category, particularly among hobbyists and visual artists.
  • They are being tested for a range of practical as well as industrial uses such as automated package deliveries by e-commerce companies.
  • They have wide range of applications such as in disaster management, delivery systems.
  • The new draft rules provide a positive move. They present a lot of clarity in the usage of drones.

Draft Drone Rules 2021

The objective of the policy is to enable more types of unmanned aircraft operational scenarios, increase the ease of compliance for the unmanned aviation industry, and ensure safety and security.

Some of the key features are as under:

Number of forms: The rules propose to reduce the number of forms required for manufacturing, importing, testing, certifying and operating drones in India from 25 to six.

Abolishing authorization number: The draft seeks to abolish the unique authorisation number, unique prototype identification number, and certificate of conformance that were previously required for approval of drone flights.

Digital Sky Platform: Digital Sky, a platform launched by the government in December 2018, will become a single-window system for all approvals under the newly proposed rules.

Airspace map: An airspace map segregating the entire landmass of India into Green, Yellow and Red zones will be published on the platform within 30 days of notification of the new rules, the government said. The map will also be machine-readable through an Application Programming Interface (API) for easier plotting of drone flight paths.

Airport Perimeter: The draft rules reduced the airport perimeter from 45 km to 12 km. The rules state that no flight permissions would be required to fly up to 400 feet in green zones and up to 200 feet in the area between 8 and 12 km from the airport perimeter.

Drone corridors: The government will also publish a policy framework for Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) within 60 days of notifying the rules. This will also include frameworks for developing “drone corridors” for the safe transfer of goods by drones.

Drone Promotion Council: The Rules also propose the setting up of a Drone Promotion Council, with the aim of facilitating a business-friendly regulatory regime for drones in India, the establishment of incubators for developing drone technologies and organizing competitive events to showcase drones and counter-drone solutions.

Others: To implement safety features such as “no permission, no take-off”, real-time tracking and geofencing, drone manufacturers, importers and operators will get six months’ time to comply from the date of notification of the rules.

Security imperative and Drones

  • The integration of unmanned aircraft systems into national air-force is critical and challenging both.
  • We have incidences were arms, narcotic drugs have been dropped by drones. So, security challenges are increasing.
  • DRDO has come up with an Anti-drone system. This makes India capable of where drones can be jammed.
  • Other is one can shoot the drone through lasers. But this has potential threats to humans.
  • Drones are called eyes in the sky as they are used by law enforcement agencies, fire emergency services, health care facilities.

Digital Sky Platform: Key to Success

  • The success of these initiatives will depend in large part on the ‘Digital Sky’ platform — a single-window online system where most permissions to own and operate drones will be self-generated.
  • Bureaucratic red tape and ‘rubber stamp culture’ has been the bane of Indian aviation for decades.
  • Paper trails with needless human intervention lend themselves to ‘discretionary powers’ and opens doors for corruption.
  • It is encouraging to see the shift to paperless approval.

Conclusion

  • The drone industry (manufacturing and operation) is still grappling with evolutionary challenges in India.
  • The ministry of civil aviation’s decision to liberalize the drone policy even after the recent drone incidents in Jammu showcases the government’s bold approach.
  • They are necessary to promote the use of the drone and the government must focus on the development of counter-drone technology to address the threat posed by rogue drones.
Categories
Burning Issues

[Burning Issue] Draft Anti-Trafficking Bill, 2021

The Union Ministry of Women and Child Development (WCD) has invited suggestions for the draft Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Care and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2021.

  • The bill once finalized will need the Cabinet approval and assent from both the houses of Parliament to become a Law.
  • The new Bill comes after a long process of revisions after the Trafficking of Persons Bill 2018 that was passed by the Lok Sabha’s nod amid a heated debate, never made it to Rajya Sabha.

What is the objective of the new bill?

To prevent and counter-trafficking in persons, especially women and children, to provide for care, protection, and rehabilitation to the victims, while respecting their rights, and creating a supportive legal, economic and social environment for them.

Human Trafficking in India

According to statistics of India’s National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), trafficking has manifold objectives.

  • These include forced labor, prostitution, and other forms of sexual exploitation. According to the NCRB, three out of five people trafficked in 2016 were children below the age of 18 years. Of these, 4,911 were girls and 4,123 were boys.
  • Sexual exploitation for prostitution was the second major purpose for human trafficking in India, after forced labor.
  • Victims of trafficking in India disproportionately represent people from traditionally disadvantaged gender, caste, and religious groups.
  • People from these groups have been systemically kept at a disadvantage in education, access to productive resources and spaces and legal remedies enhancing their vulnerability.
  • Across regions, studies have found that majority of victims are women and children belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the Other Backward Classes (OBCs), the Scheduled Tribes (STs) and minority religions.
  • Children are trafficked first and then placed in labor either forced or for earning a sub minimal wage or in case of the more unfortunate ones, i.e. particularly girls and young boys, are forced into sexual exploitation.
  • Usurious money-lending and debt bondage will also become a force-multiplier for sourcing child labor from the country-side, from desperate families for bondage and trafficking.

Why the old bill was criticized so much?

  • According to the United Nations’ human rights experts; it was not in accordance with the international human rights laws.
  • The Bill seemed to combine sex work and migration with trafficking.
  • The Bill was criticized for addressing trafficking through a criminal law perspective instead of complementing it with a human-rights based and victim-centred approach.
  • It was also criticized for promoting “rescue raids” by the police as well as the institutionalization of victims in the name of rehabilitation.
  • It was pointed out that certain vague provisions would lead to blanket criminalization of activities that do not necessarily relate to trafficking.

What are the provisions in the new bill?

(1) Coverage

  • Persons on any ship or aircraft registered in India wherever it may be or carrying Indian citizens wherever they may be,
  • A foreign national or a stateless person who has his or her residence in India at the time of commission of offence under this Act, and
  • The law will apply to every offence of trafficking in persons with cross-border implications.

(2) Wider definition of trafficking

  • It extends beyond the protection of women and children as victims to now include transgender as well as any person who may be a victim of trafficking.
  • It also does away with the provision that a victim necessarily needs to be transported from one place to another to be defined as a victim.
  • “Trafficking in Persons” is defined to include –

a) any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives another person;

b) by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of authority or of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person;

(c) for the purpose of exploitation of that person;

(3) Defines ‘Exploitation’

  • Exploitation will include the “prostitution of others” or other forms of sexual exploitation including pornography, any act of physical exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or forced removal of organs, illegal clinical drug trials or illegal bio-medical research or the like.
  • Examples of aggravated offences listed in the Bill include offences that result in the death of the victim or his dependent or any other person, including death as a result of suicide.
  • This also includes cases where the offence has been caused by administering any chemical substance or hormones on a person for the purpose of early sexual maturity.

(4) Government Officers as Offenders

Offenders will also include defense personnel and government servants, doctors and paramedical staff or anyone in a position of authority.

(5) Stringent penalty

  • It is proposed that whoever commits the offence shall be punishable with a term for ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to Rs 10 lakh.
  • Offence against a child of less than twelve years of age, or against a woman for the purpose of repeated rape, the person shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for twenty years, but which may extend to life.
  • In case of second or subsequent conviction, the accused may be punished with death sentence. The fine may extend up to Rs 30 lakh.
  • When a public servant, or a police officer, or a person in charge of or a staff of a women’s or children’s home or institution is involved, he shall be punishable on conviction for the remainder of natural life.
  • A person advertising, publishing, printing, broadcasting or distributing any material that promotes trafficking of a person or exploitation of a trafficked person will invite punishment.

(6) Similarity to Money laundering Act

  • Property bought via such income as well as used for trafficking can now be forfeited with provisions set in place, similar to that of the money laundering Act.

(7) Investigation agency

The National Investigation Agency (NIA) shall act as the national investigating and coordinating agency responsible for the prevention and combating of trafficking in persons.

(8) Timeframe for granting compensation

  • The district legal services authority (DLSA) shall provide immediate relief to the victim and dependent, including aid and assistance for medical and rehabilitation needs, within seven days.
  • The DLSA shall award interim relief to a victim or any dependant within a period of thirty days of an application submitted and after due assessment.
  • The bill also says the investigation needs to be completed within 90 days from the date of the arrest of the accused.

(9) National Anti-Human Trafficking Committee:

  • Once the law is enacted, the Centre will notify and establish a National Anti-Human Trafficking Committee, for ensuring overall effective implementation of the provisions of this law.
    • This committee will have representation from various ministries with the home secretary as the chairperson and secretary of the women and child development ministry as co-chair.
    • State and district level anti-human trafficking committees will also be constituted.

Why this bill is significant?

  • The transgender community, and any other person, has been included which will automatically bring under its scope activity such as organ harvesting.
  • Also, cases such as forced labour, in which people lured with jobs end up in other countries where their passports and documentation are taken away and they are made to work, will also be covered by this new law.

What are the legislations in India that prohibits human trafficking?

  • Article 23 (1) in the constitution of India prohibits trafficking in human beings and forced labour.
  • Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) penalizes trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
  • India also prohibits bonded and forced labour through the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976, Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act 1986, and Juvenile Justice Act.
  • Sections 366(A) and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, prohibits kidnapping and selling minors into prostitution respectively.
  • The Factories Act, 1948 guaranteed the protection of the rights of workers.

International Conventions, Protocols and Campaigns

  • Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children in 2000 as a part of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.
  • This protocol was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000.
  • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is responsible for implementing the protocol.
  • It offers practical help to states with drafting laws, creating comprehensive national anti-trafficking strategies, and assisting with resources to implement them.
  • Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air. It entered into force on 28 January 2004.
  • This also supplements the UN Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime. The Protocol is aimed at the protection of rights of migrants and the reduction of the power and influence of organized criminal groups that abuse migrants.
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) is a non-binding declaration that establishes the right of every human to live with dignity and prohibits slavery.
  • Blue Heart Campaign: The Blue Heart Campaign is an international anti-trafficking program started by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
  • Sustainable Development Goals: Various SDGs aim to end trafficking by targeting its roots and means viz.
  • Goal 5 (Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls),
  • Goal 8 (Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all) and
  • Goal 16 (Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels).

Concerns over the new bill

  • The bill is not clear about how the NIA will gather information and intelligence from different parts of the country through Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) at district level and State level.
  • The bill is largely silent on rescue protocols except the “reason to believe” by a police officer not below the rank of a sub-inspector. This makes the role of the AHTUs unclear in the rescue and post-rescue processes.
  • There are also concerns about absence of community-based rehabilitation, missing definition of reintegration and also about the funds related to rehabilitation of survivors in the bill.
  • In absence of rescue protocol there is always the fear of forced rescue of adult persons who may have been trafficked but do not wish to get rescued.
  • The proposed Bill criminalizes sex work and the choice of sex work as profession. The Draft Trafficking Bill has mixed up the issue of trafficking and sex work.

Way Forward

  • Foresight and preparedness: in the midst of the current lockdown can save the lives of crores of women, men and children and avoid an impending humanitarian crisis
  • Collaboration is key: A lot of work needs to be done in a collaborative manner, between key stakeholders such as the government and civil society organizations, for any substantial change to be seen.
  • Assessment and review of legal framework: The central government must assess the existing criminal law on trafficking and its ability to counter the crime and meet the needs of the victim.
  • Increase in budgetary allocation for law enforcement and victim rehabilitation: There is a gross deficit in the budgetary allocation to combat human trafficking.
  • Curbing the rise of online Child Sexual Abuse material: The upsurge of child sexual abuse material and its easy access can only be controlled by placing greater accountability on Internet Service Providers and digital platforms that host this content.
  • Safety net in source areas of trafficking: Schools, communities, religious authorities and the local administration need to recognize and control trafficking and bonded labour in villages.
  • Intensive campaignings: must educate communities about the threat and modus operandi of trafficking agents, especially in the source areas such as Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, and Assam.
  • Monitoring: The railway and other transport facilities have to be intensely monitored.
  • Public Awareness and Sensitization: Awareness around existing government social welfare schemes and the means to access them should be generated and the government must immediately initiate registration of unorganized workers.
  • Financial protection: Special financial protection should be extended for the next year in order to keep the wolf away from the door.