From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Supreme Court of India
Mains level : Not Much
The Supreme Court of India is hosting its celebration of the 73rd anniversary of its establishment today.
Why in news?
- This year’s event is being aired on social media platforms and will witness Singapore’s Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon, who is of Indian origin, as the chief guest.
When was the Supreme Court founded?
- On January 28, 1950, two days after India became a sovereign democratic republic, the Supreme Court of India came into being.
- The first CJI of India was H. J. Kania.
- The inauguration took place in the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament building which was the home to the Federal Court of India for 12 years preceding the Supreme Court’s establishment.
- The Parliament House was to be the home of the Supreme Court for years that were to follow until the court acquired its own present building with lofty domes and its signature spacious colonnaded verandas in 1958.
History of established
- In 1861, the Indian High Courts Act 1861 was enacted to create high courts for various provinces and abolished Supreme Courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay and also the sadar adalats in presidency towns in their respective regions.
- These new high courts had the distinction of being the highest courts for all cases till the creation of the Federal Court of India under the Government of India Act 1935.
- The Federal Court had jurisdiction to solve disputes between provinces and federal states and hear appeals against judgment of the high courts.
Premise of the Supreme Court
- In 1958, when the court shifted its premises, the building was shaped to project the image of scales of justice, in the central wing.
- In 1979, two new wings – the East wing and the West wing – were added to the complex. In all, there are 19 Courtrooms in the various wings of the building.
- The Chief Justice’s Court is the largest of the Courts located at the Centre of the Central Wing.
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