Wildlife Conservation Efforts

Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Kaziranga NP

Mains level : Floods in India

As a fresh wave of floods ravages Assam, killing, 85 per cent of the Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve (KNPTR) remains submerged.

Try this question from CSP 2019:

Q.Consider the following statements:

  1. Asiatic lion is naturally found in India only.
  2. Double-humped camel is naturally found in India only.
  3. One-horned rhinoceros is naturally found in India only.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve

  • The KNTPR is a national park in the Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam.
  • The sanctuary, which hosts two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site.
  • Kaziranga is home to the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world and was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006 (now the highest tiger density is in Orang National Park, Assam).
  • The park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer.
  • It is also recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for the conservation of avifaunal species.

Significance of floods in Kaziranga’s ecosystem

  • The entire area of Kaziranga — formed by alluvial deposits from the Brahmaputra and its tributaries — is centred on the river.
  • There is a consensus that floods are necessary for Kaziranga by virtue of it being riverine ecosystem.
  • The regenerative nature of floods helps replenish Kaziranga’s water bodies and maintain its landscape, a mix of wetlands, grasslands and semi-evergreen deciduous forests.
  • The floodwaters also function as a breeding ground for fish.
  • The same fish are carried away by the receding waters into the Brahmaputra — in a way, the park replenishes the river’s stock of fish too.
  • The waters also help get rid of unwanted plants such as water hyacinth which collect in huge masses in the landscape.
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